Re: [babel] Benjamin Kaduk's Discuss on draft-ietf-babel-information-model-11: (with DISCUSS and COMMENT)

"STARK, BARBARA H" <bs7652@att.com> Wed, 10 March 2021 22:12 UTC

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From: "STARK, BARBARA H" <bs7652@att.com>
To: "'Benjamin Kaduk'" <kaduk@mit.edu>
CC: "'babel-chairs@ietf.org'" <babel-chairs@ietf.org>, "'d3e3e3@gmail.com'" <d3e3e3@gmail.com>, "'The IESG'" <iesg@ietf.org>, "'babel@ietf.org'" <babel@ietf.org>, "'draft-ietf-babel-information-model@ietf.org'" <draft-ietf-babel-information-model@ietf.org>
Thread-Topic: [babel] Benjamin Kaduk's Discuss on draft-ietf-babel-information-model-11: (with DISCUSS and COMMENT)
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Archived-At: <https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/msg/babel/RRuj1V0Kd8Jh8QlUIxM87KsfRtw>
Subject: Re: [babel] Benjamin Kaduk's Discuss on draft-ietf-babel-information-model-11: (with DISCUSS and COMMENT)
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Hi Ben,
I'm cutting to just the one open issue. The WG discussed this today during its meeting, and we've exchanged some emails. It turns out some things have changed in the past year (and some haven't). My comment / suggested text is at the bottom of this email. Thx,
Barbara

> > > I think the -12 addresses most of my concerns, but we may need to talk a
> > > bit more about the HMAC key length topic -- I'm having a hard time matching
> > > the stated justification with my understanding of the facts.
> > >
> > > > >
> > > > > > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > > > > DISCUSS:
> > > > > > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Section 2 says that the "DTLS certificate values" are required to return
> > > > > > no value when read, but this property seems to be intended for private
> > > > > > data such as DTLS private key values, not the certificates themselves
> > > > > > (which are public).
> > > > >
> > > > > Thanks. I agree and suggest in Section 2, changing "DTLS certificate
> values"
> > > to
> > > > > "DTLS private keys" (which are required to return no value when read).
> > > > >
> > > > > > While I appreciate that IPv6 is the current version of the internet
> > > > > > protocol, I do see that 6126bis allows for Babel to run over both IPv6
> > > > > > and IPv4, yet this document in multiple places implicitly assumes that
> > > > > > Babel runs over IPv6, to the exclusion of IPv4.  Such a restriction from
> > > > > > the core protocol spec should only be undertaken by an information
> model
> > > > > > with clear reasoning and loud disclaimer.
> > > > >
> > > > > The WG did discuss this and expressed the view that they were only
> > > interested
> > > > > in defining configuration for Babel over IPv6. Note that use of Babel to
> > > > > configure
> > > > > IPv4 routing tables can be done over IPv6.
> > > > >
> > > > > Perhaps if we added to the Abstract <Juliusz: please look at this and
> provide
> > > > > suggested changes>:
> > > > > "This information model only includes parameters and parameter values
> > > > > useful for managing Babel over IPv6.
> > > > > This model has no parameters or values specific to operating Babel
> > > > > over IPv4, although Babel can be operated over IPv4.
> > > > > Note that Babel over IPv6 can be used for configuration of both
> > > > > IPv4 and IPv6 routes."
> > > > >
> > > > > and then expand on this in the Introduction with
> > > > > "This information model only includes parameters and parameter values
> > > > > useful for managing Babel over IPv6.
> > > > > This model has no parameters or values specific to operating Babel
> > > > > over IPv4, even though [ID.ietf-babel-rfc6126bis] does define a multicast
> > > > > group for sending and listening to multicast announcements on IPv4.
> > > > > There is less likelihood of breakage due to
> > > > > inconsistent configuration and increased implementation simplicity
> > > > > if Babel is operated always and only over IPv6. Running Babel over IPv6
> > > > > requires IPv6 at the link layer and does not need advertised prefixes,
> router
> > > > > advertisements or DHCPv6 to be present in the network. Link-local IPv6 is
> > > widely
> > > > > supported among devices where Babel is expected to be used.
> > > > > Note that Babel over IPv6 can be used for configuration of both
> > > > > IPv4 and IPv6 routes."
> > > > >
> > > > > > Similarly (as Roman notes), we are putting requirements on the key
> > > > > > length for MAC keys (relative to the block size of the underlying hash
> > > > > > function) that have were once present in draft-ietf-babel-hmac but
> have
> > > > > > been removed as of draft-ietf-babel-hmac-10.  I assume that the intent
> > > > > > is not to impose additional restrictions compared to the protocol spec,
> > > > > > thus we need to catch up to those changes.
> > > > >
> > > > > How humans interact with configuration parameters presented through
> > > > > a data model instantiation of this information model is a concern. Having
> > > > > experienced the horrors of the days of configuring WEP keys (which were
> > > > > either ASCII or hex and caused most people not to use WEP with Wi-Fi)
> > > > > and witnessed (and been party to) the discussions in
> > > > > Babel where we wanted to ensure that whatever string was inputted for
> > > > > the key would yield consistent MAC computation across all
> implementations
> > > > > (i.e.,
> > > > > would yield consistent "actual key"), I believe
> > > > > it is imperative for the information model to constrain the input. As I
> > > explained
> > > > > in my response to Roman and Valery, we saw considerable variability in
> > > > > how existing libraries for allowing users to supply a key value treated
> > > > > values that could not be directly used as what RFC 2104 calls "the actual
> > > key".
> > > > > To ensure human users are successful in supplying the same "actual key"
> > > value
> > > > > to various
> > > > > implementations, it's necessary for user interfaces to restrict what is
> > > > > supplied to be "the actual key" so no extraneous hashing and processing
> > > > > is needed to generate "the actual key" (other than adding zeroes if the
> input
> > > > > key is shorter than an "actual key").
> > >
> > > These are all important considerations, and I am glad that you are keeping
> > > them in mind (while simultaneously being sad that they are necessary).
> > > But they seem to mostly be concers with the translation layer between the
> > > input layer and the cryptographic API, and the restrictions that I am
> > > concerned about are ones that relate to processing done within the
> > > cryptographic API boundary.
> >
> > I find this statement a little confusing, since the info model is placing no
> restrictions on processing done within a cryptographic API boundary. It's only
> placing restrictions on the length and datatype of a parameter (supplied via a
> management protocol or user interface) that is then provided to a Babel
> implementation. What the Babel implementation does to or with this parameter
> is not something the info model cares about.
> 
> Well, my reasoning is basically that the information model is imposing a
> limitation on the inputs to the cryptographic API that is more stringent
> then the documented requirements for that API.  The only vaguely plausible
> reason that I know of that one might want to impose this specific
> requirement is to affect the internal processing of that API (to avoid the
> extra "hash the key input" step).  So, picking this specific limit on the
> input to the cryptographic API comes across as attempting to force a
> specific behavior path within the cryptographic API.
> 
> IMO, if you are going to use HMAC, use the HMAC interface as documented and
> let HMAC determine which of its internal paths to take.  If you need to
> impose some restriction on the inputs, do so for reasons related to
> processing at the application layer (including, potentially, existing
> implementations that do the wrong thing) and document it as such.
> 
> > > > > The restrictions provided for the length of an input key are consistent
> with
> > > > > what the HMAC and BLAKE RFCs indicate for "actual key" length.
> > > > >
> > > > > This allows implementations of draft-ietf-babel-hmac to use existing
> HMAC
> > > > > and BLAKE2s libraries without worrying about what inconsistent
> > > manipulations
> > > > > the libraries or associated libraries for inputting keys do to strings that
> are
> > > > > too long to be directly used as "actual keys".
> > >
> > > In particular, the procedures for using an HMAC key longer than the block
> > > length of the underlying hash function (hash the key first) are
> > > longstanding and well-implemented.  Are you saying that you have
> > > experiences with buggy HMAC implementations that don't do this?  (If so,
> > > that would be a great tidbit to mention in the document as motivation.)
> >
> > The Bird (language) implementation of Babel used existing code for OSPF. That
> code was designed according to RFC 5709, which will hash any "Authentication
> Key" (K) longer than the length of the hash (L) to create a cryptographic key (Ko)
> that is exactly L octets long.
> >
> > What RFC 5709 describes is different than what RFC 2104 (HMAC) describes.
> RFC 2104 says to create a hash of the authentication key (K) if it is longer than
> the block size of the hashing algorithm (B). For SHA-256, B != L. Therefore, using
> RFC 5709 will get a different value for the cryptographic key than RFC 2104, for
> authentication key length between L and B. This difference was noted in
> RFC5709 errata. RFC 7166 updated RFC 6506 wrt this. But RFC 7166 didn't
> update RFC 5709.  RFC 7474 updated RFC 5709 and kept the L boundary. We
> looked at the Bird library code which does indeed do the calculation according
> to RFC 5709. Fortunately, there is great consistency among the various RFCs
> around zero-padding short authentication keys.
> >
> > Furthermore, the Bird implementation allowed the key to be provided via a
> GUI that treated the input sequence of characters as ASCII. This was, again,
> from code that already existed for OSPF. But note there is no requirement in any
> RFC for support of an authentication key entered in ASCII format.
> 
> Thanks; this is really helpful information to know (and pretty unfortunate
> about the OSPF situation).
> But if issues with how an existing Babel implementation handles input keys
> longer than the output length of the hash are what motivate the key length
> restrictions, shouldn't the length restrictions reflect the hash output
> length rather than the hash block size?
> 
> > The C implementation of Babel was designed with the expectation that a
> centralized system would push the key out to all the routers. It assumed the
> supplied key was in binary format. Preferably, the centralized system would
> randomly generate the binary value. But if there were a user entering an ASCII
> string at the centralized system, the centralized system would be able to do
> whatever desired manipulation and push a suitable binary out to all routers. The
> C implementation does not accept ASCII input.
> 
> (I assume that "does not accept ASCII input" just means "does not do
> processing on input to take a human-presentable ASCII representation of a
> binary key and convert it into the underlying binary key", as opposed to
> "checks for the condition where all octets of the input are in the ASCII
> printable range and rejects that input".)
> 
> > The WG discussed all of this extensively in January of 2019. And then re-hashed
> it (haha) in August of 2019. There was discussion of imposing either RFC 5709 or
> RFC 2104 calculation for long "authentication keys" on the Babel
> implementations (in the babel-mac draft). There was discussion of requiring the
> key supplied to an implementation to be exactly the cryptographic key (so all
> manipulation was done external to Babel). And other ideas (I can point to the
> emails in the archive, if you like; there were many emails). The August 2019
> decision was for the babel-mac draft not to impose additional restrictions on the
> format of provided keys (other than restrictions imposed by SHA-256 and
> BLAKE2s RFCs on keys) and not to choose between RFC 5709 or RFC 2104. So
> the Bird and C implementations did not need to change what they were doing.
> But the info model would restrict the length and datatype of "authentication
> key" values it supplied so the cryptographic keys the implementations ended up
> calculating from the input binary authentication key would always be the same.
> The values supplied by the info model will simply never invoke code that would
> result in inconsistent cryptographic key values.
> 
> Thank you very much for the summary of the prior WG discussions; I cannot
> hope to try to repeat the depth of consideration that was already given.
> As above, though, my reading of the -13 is that it does allow hitting the
> code that would result in inconsistent key values, since the stated limit
> for HMAC-SHA256 is 64 bytes, not 32.
> 
> > > The situation for Blake2s-128 (which is being used directly and not via
> > > HMAC) is not quite so clear to me since it's a more recent innovation, and
> > > RFC 7693 seems rather unclear about what to do if the input key is larger
> > > than 64 bytes (it talks only of padding the key and setting as d[0], where
> > > d[0] is a 16-word block, and for Blake2s words are 32 bits).  So while
> > > limiting the length of the Blake2s key may be justified in fact, (1) that
> > > justification should probably be in the document, and (2) I don't see a
> > > factual basis for limiting HMAC keys to the block length.
> >
> > And we also could find nothing that described what to do for long keys in
> BLAKE2s. So the datatype and length restriction would again ensure consistent
> cryptographic key calculation.
> 
> I would strongly encourage adding some discussion of the motivation for the
> length limits into the draft itself.
> 
> > > (For what it's worth I did do a bit of math, and even if the "actual key"
> > > is limited to uppercase letters plus digits, a 64-character string can
> > > still contain some 330 bits of entropy, which is stronger than a 32-byte
> > > random string.  You'd have to be really limited in what characters can be
> > > used, e.g., to only digits, in order to have the maximum theoretical
> > > entropy of the 64-character string fall below 256 bits.)
> 
> If the limit is actually going to be 32 characters, the numbers go down
> accordingly, but 165 bits is not shabby, and adding in lowercase letters
> gets you up to 190 bits, and the full 95 ASCII printables cap out at 210
> bits.

Here's what I'm thinking as a proposal for the key value parameter description:

This value is of a length suitable for the associated babel-mac-key-algorithm. If the algorithm is based on the HMAC construction [RFC2104], the length MUST be between 0 and an upper limit that is at least the size of the output length (where "HMAC-SHA256" output length is 32 octets as described in [RFC4868]). Longer lengths MAY be supported but are not necessary if the management system has the ability to generate a suitably random value (e.g., by randomly generating a value or by using a key derivation technique as recommended in [RFC8967] Security Considerations). If the algorithm is "BLAKE2s-128", the length MUST be between 0 and 32 bytes inclusive as specified by [RFC7693].

In the Security Considerations I propose adding, after the sentence "See the Security Considerations section of [RFC8967] for additional considerations related to MAC keys.": 

The fifth paragraph of that security Considerations section makes some specific key value recommendations that should be noted. It says that if it is necessary to derive keys from a human-readable passphrase, "only the derived keys should be communicated to the routers" and "the original passphrase itself should be kept on the host used to perform the key generation" (which would be the management system in the case of a remote management protocol). It also recommends that keys "should have a length of 32 octets (both for HMAC-SHA256 and BLAKE2s), and be chosen randomly".