Re: [gaia] [hrpc] Fibre Feudalism

Amelia Andersdotter <amelia@article19.org> Sat, 20 October 2018 18:22 UTC

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From: Amelia Andersdotter <amelia@article19.org>
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Date: Sat, 20 Oct 2018 20:22:17 +0200
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Subject: Re: [gaia] [hrpc] Fibre Feudalism
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On 2018-10-20 19:18, Leandro Navarro wrote:
>
> Hi all, interesting discussion,
>
> On 20/10/18 13:30, Michael J. Oghia wrote:
>> Hi Amelia, Sonia, all:
>>
>> Forgive my ignorance, but I'm quite surprised to hear that USO/USF
>> within the EU context. I find it a bit disheartening, honestly. For
>> much time now, I've seen USO/USF as a positive policy option to
>> encourage network diversity and especially help small networks or
>> networks working in rural/remote areas (e.g.., CNs).
>
> USO in my limited understanding usually works against small networks,
> and nearly always only in favor of the largest "universal" (national)
> telecoms. The funds are given to a single (e.g. BT in UK, Telefonica
> in ES) national operator in exchange of connecting more of the
> unconnected users with a minimal service under a cost threshold.
>
> For instance, the UK recently has been revising the USO policy:
>
> https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/CBP-8146#fullreport
>
BEREC has made a study here:
https://berec.europa.eu/eng/document_register/subject_matter/berec/download/0/6973-berec-update-survey-on-the-implementatio_0.pdf

Among the six countries that have no USO in the EU, only Germany doesn't
have great infrastructure and three have very OK infra (EE, SE and RO).
US provisions can work out OK, but the problem is in the information
asymmetry: the big companies will be much better placed to argue with
regulators that funds should go to *them*. A USO strategy needs to take
into account this information asymmetry/power imbalance at the
regulator/regulatee level (can it be countered? how?).

best regards,

Amelia


> They are targeting a cost threshold of £3,400 per connection (limit
> from the total cost of implementation of several billions of GBP) to
> provide 10/1 Mbps connection. BT is the only USO provider (KCOM in a
> specific area for curious reasons). As you can see the focus is
> bringing more "customers" matching a minimum of quality by "feeding"
> the largest (most capable?) operator in that country.
>
> https://www.ispreview.co.uk/index.php/2018/03/government-details-final-10mbps-for-all-uk-broadband-uso-design.html
>
> For instance, one fibre community network fears the effect of that:
>
> https://www.ispreview.co.uk/index.php/2017/11/b4rn-fear-10mbps-uk-broadband-uso-may-hamper-rural-ftth-rollout.html
>
> However there can be alternative models, where the funds are not given
> to just one operator, but to every citizen that qualifies. Bottom-up
> instead of top-down. That may contribute to increase alternatives and
> not just reinforce the largest operators (at the exchange of moving to
> a more "feudal" model): https://b4rn.org.uk/b4rn-service/gbvs/
>
> We also have/had a related discussion in the IRTF GAIA WG, and
> probably will reappear in the next IGF in the presentation of the next
> Global Information Society Watch report around community networks:
>
> https://www.intgovforum.org/multilingual/es/content/igf-2018-apc-giswatch-launch
>
> Cheers, Leandro.
>
>>
>> Given my lack of experience with actually building networks, though,
>> perhaps this is just naivety and wishful thinking on my part. I'm
>> glad that Sonia replied, though, because I had A4AI's 2018 paper
>> <https://webfoundation.org/docs/2018/03/Using-USAFs-to-Close-the-Gender-Digital-Divide-in-Africa.pdf>
>> on USO/USF in mind when drafting this email – though models (and
>> their outcomes) differ based on country policy, regional context,
>> politics, the amount of incumbent operators, etc. etc. I also
>> appreciate her qualification that, traditionally, USO have been more
>> effective in poorer countries (which is in line with my thought).
>>
>> So, thank you for clarifying @Sonia, and I'd be very interested in a
>> webinar on this. Please share the 2018 report next week when it's
>> published (I'm really interested in the policy implications
>> surrounding connectivity).
>>
>> Best,
>> -Michael
>>
>> On Sat, Oct 20, 2018 at 6:07 AM Sonia Jorge
>> <sonia.jorge@webfoundation.org
>> <mailto:sonia.jorge@webfoundation.org>> wrote:
>>
>>     Hi All,
>>
>>     Interesting discussion here. One that might warrant a
>>     webinar/conference call among interested people? Steve, what do
>>     you think? I would be happy to join a stimulating discussion on
>>     the topic, starting with your blog and the Access Model. 
>>
>>     Amelia, can you point me to some evidence or a paper (anything
>>     you may have) that shows that relationship between USO and
>>     quality of infrastructure? I find that very difficult to believe
>>     but open to be proven wrong. 
>>
>>     Something important to keep in mind is that countries where USO
>>     have been more instrumental are also countries that have
>>     traditionally been poorer and behind in terms of infrastructure
>>     development; this is certainly the case in some Southern European
>>     countries and maybe Eastern European ones as well. So the level
>>     of economic development overall is a key variable. 
>>
>>     As for Africa and/or infrastructure investments, I could share a
>>     lot here, but for now let me call your attention to some reports
>>     we produced and that can add to the discussion. 
>>     - A4AI’s annual Affordability
>>     Report: https://a4ai.org/affordability-report/report/2017/. Note
>>     that the 2018 report will be launched and published on Tuesday
>>     and addresses key questions relevant to this discussion,
>>     specially on costs associated with infrastructure investment
>>     - a recent blog on infrastructure costs and
>>     challenges: https://a4ai.org/affordable-internet-access-the-cost-challenge/
>>     - For those interested in USFs in Africa,
>>     see https://a4ai.org/universal-service-and-access-funds-an-untapped-resource-to-close-the-gender-digital-divide/
>>
>>     Best,
>>     Sonia Jorge
>>     Executive Director, A4AI
>>     Head of Digital Inclusion, Web Foundation
>>     1-617-905-7819
>>
>>     On Oct 20, 2018, at 05:33, Amelia Andersdotter
>>     <amelia@article19.org <mailto:amelia@article19.org>> wrote:
>>
>>>     Hi all,
>>>
>>>     It might be helpful to know that EU countries where Universal
>>>     Service
>>>     Obligations have been extensively used and applied, also
>>>     typically have
>>>     worse infrastructure than EU countries where USO wasn't well
>>>     applied.
>>>     Applying USO means you put the government in a position where it
>>>     faces
>>>     off with the service provider under USO in a negotiation. The
>>>     service
>>>     provider has information advantage and typically a better
>>>     relationship
>>>     to its consumers than the government has to its citizens (so a
>>>     communications advantage too). I lack experience of the African
>>>     markets
>>>     and their regulators, but in broad strokes those are the issues
>>>     faced in
>>>     various European jurisdictions with USO and I'm assuming similar
>>>     difficulties would arise in the African setting. This is a bit
>>>     theoretical, and I'm just curious how to avoid these information
>>>     asymmetries?
>>>
>>>     As it is described by Steven, the current feudalism (operators
>>>     A, B and
>>>     C all collaborate as soon as they own physical fibre networks) also
>>>     incentivises many actors to get into the infrastructure market.
>>>     That's
>>>     fundamentally a good thing: it means not all the last-mile is
>>>     owned by a
>>>     few big actors who need to be regulated by a regulator who is
>>>     fundamentally at a disadvantage compared to the big actors. It's the
>>>     main criticism targetting the Local Loop Unbundling reform of
>>>     1999 in
>>>     the EU as well - challengers don't invest enough in last-mile
>>>     infrastructure (except in those EU markets where many different
>>>     actors
>>>     have had regulatory incentives to build their own networks, or where
>>>     there has been purposeful public investment in last-mile). Or am I
>>>     misunderstanding something?
>>>
>>>     best regards,
>>>
>>>     Amelia
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>>     On 2018-10-04 20:52, Steve Song wrote:
>>>>     Hi Mallory,
>>>>
>>>>     Thanks for that!  I think you are on exactly the right track in
>>>>     terms
>>>>     of thinking about economic models.  Thanks to Erick Huerta of
>>>>     Rhizomatica, I am very taken with the thinking of French economic
>>>>     historian, Fernand Braudel.  Braudel argues that the world has
>>>>     three
>>>>     economies not one.  A global economy which is the well-known
>>>>     capitalist economic model where monopoly is the perfect end-game in
>>>>     theory for every player.  Google, Colgate, Coca-Cola, all the usual
>>>>     suspects form part of this economy.  The second economy is the
>>>>     Local
>>>>     Economy where services are specific to the city/community where you
>>>>     live.  This might be your local butcher, baker, plumbers or even
>>>>     larger service provider which offers services that grow out of
>>>>     local
>>>>     demand and which serve local needs in more unique ways than the
>>>>     Global
>>>>     Economy.  The third economy is the Subsistence economy where market
>>>>     forces may not operate because there is not sufficient traditional
>>>>     capital to make it work.  This is the world of the informal economy
>>>>     with barters, cooperatives, community initiatives that directly
>>>>     contribute to the overall economy but are largely unmeasured by
>>>>     traditional statistics.  And woven among these are both
>>>>     commercial and
>>>>     commons models, which can operate with varying success at the
>>>>     different levels.  
>>>>
>>>>     When viewed through this lens, it is easy to see how regulation has
>>>>     only enabled the global economy in telecommunication and that
>>>>     there is
>>>>     a need for enabling regulations to nurture telecom initiatives
>>>>     in the
>>>>     Local and Subsistence economies.  
>>>>
>>>>     For me this also highlights a key flaw in models like the World
>>>>     Bank's
>>>>     Access Gap model
>>>>     <http://blogs.worldbank.org/ic4d/the-gaps-model-and-universal-access>. It
>>>>     is not so much that the model is wrong, it is just one-dimensional;
>>>>     assuming that successful global capitalism is the best of all
>>>>     possible
>>>>     outcomes.
>>>>
>>>>     Writing more about this shortly.
>>>>
>>>>     Cheers... Steve
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>     On Thu, 4 Oct 2018 at 10:57, Mallory Knodel
>>>>     <mallory@article19.org <mailto:mallory@article19.org>
>>>>     <mailto:mallory@article19.org>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>        Hi Steve,
>>>>
>>>>        Thanks for sharing. I read it last night and I really
>>>>     enjoyed it.. I
>>>>        think the metaphor is solid economically. And politically,
>>>>     well, that
>>>>        could be another post in and of itself.
>>>>
>>>>        The agrarian commons would of course be ideal, but what we
>>>>     have is a
>>>>        sort of old-world economic structure that politically
>>>>     controls and
>>>>        profits from (what should be) the commons. This sets you up
>>>>     nicely to
>>>>        call for modern economic models ranging from squarely
>>>>     capitalist to
>>>>        socialist, and even (back to) the commons!
>>>>
>>>>        I'm CCing HRPC because it might be of interest to those who have
>>>>        raised
>>>>        issues of centralisation on the list in the past.
>>>>
>>>>        -Mallory
>>>>
>>>>        On 04/10/2018 15:30, Steve Song wrote:
>>>>>     Hi all,
>>>>>
>>>>>     This is a reflection on the current state of terrestrial fibre
>>>>>     infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa (but I think applies just
>>>>>     about
>>>>>     everywhere).  
>>>>>
>>>>>     https://manypossibilities.net/2018/10/fibre-feudalism/
>>>>>
>>>>>     Curious to know how apt you feel the metaphor is or any other
>>>>        reactions
>>>>>     you may have. 
>>>>>
>>>>>     Thanks..... Steve Song
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>     _______________________________________________
>>>>>     gaia mailing list
>>>>>     gaia@irtf.org <mailto:gaia@irtf.org> <mailto:gaia@irtf.org>
>>>>>     https://www.irtf.org/mailman/listinfo/gaia
>>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>        --
>>>>        Mallory Knodel
>>>>        Head of Digital :: article19.org <http://article19.org>
>>>>     <http://article19.org>
>>>>        gpg fingerprint :: E3EB 63E0 65A3 B240 BCD9  B071 0C32 A271
>>>>     BD3C C780
>>>>
>>>>        _______________________________________________
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>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>     -- 
>>>>     +1 902 529 0046
>>>>     stevesong@nsrc.org <mailto:stevesong@nsrc.org>
>>>>     <mailto:stevesong@nsrc.org>
>>>>     http://nsrc..org <http://nsrc.org>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>     _______________________________________________
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>>>>     https://www.irtf.org/mailman/listinfo/hrpc
>>>
>>>
>>>     -- 
>>>     Amelia Andersdotter
>>>     Technical Consultant, Digital Programme
>>>
>>>     ARTICLE19
>>>     www.article19.org <http://www.article19.org>
>>>
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>>>
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-- 
Amelia Andersdotter
Technical Consultant, Digital Programme

ARTICLE19
www.article19.org

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