New ID

Alan Emtage <> Mon, 14 November 1994 04:24 UTC

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From: Alan Emtage <>
Date: Sun, 13 Nov 1994 22:29:15 -0500
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To: internet-drafts@CNRI.Reston.VA.US
Subject: New ID
Cc: Martijn Koster <>,,,

Hi Cynthia,
	Could you please enter this as an ID? You could call it "the_
draft_that_wouldn't_die.txt" but Jon may not be too happy about that :-)
This should come through the IIIR WG which is where incomplete IAFA docs
went when IAFA folded. I don't honestly remember if there was a draft of
this under IIIR or not already, so it may be 00 or 01 in this incarnation.
It was under "iafa-publishing" before. There is an nroff version of this
available, but since it's just and ID, the formatted ASCII version should
do for now (I hope).

Any help appreciated. Thanks.


Expires: March 1, 1995
                                                  P. Deutsch
                                                   A. Emtage
                                                   M. Koster
                             Munich University of Technology

 Publishing Information on the Internet with Anonymous FTP

1.  Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft. Internet-Drafts are
working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF), its Areas, and its Working Groups. Note that other
groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-
Drafts. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a max-
imum of six months. Internet-Drafts may be updated,
replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is
not appropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as a "working draft" or "work in

2.  Abstract

Anonymous FTP Archives are a popular method of making
material available to the Internet user community. This
document specifies a range of indexing information that can
be used to describe the contents and services provided by
such archives.  This information can be used directly by the
user community when visiting parts of the archive. Further-
more, automatic indexing tools can gather and index this
information, thus making it easier for users to find and
access it.

3.  Acknowledgments

This document is the result of work done in the Internet
Anonymous FTP Archives (IAFA) working group of the IETF.
Special thanks are due to George Brett, Jill Foster, Jim
Fullton, Joan Gargano, Rebecca Guenther, John Kunze, Clif-
ford Lynch, Pete Percival, Paul Peters, Cecilia Preston,
Peggy Seiden, Craig Summerhill, Chris Weider, and Janet

4.  Introduction

Over the past several years, Anonymous FTP has become the
primary method of publishing information in the Internet

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environment. Anonymous FTP is an application-level service
that makes use of the File Transfer Protocol [1], one of the
principal protocols of the TCP/IP suite. A well organized
and well maintained Anonymous FTP archive (AFA) can provide
a relatively cheap and simple way to distribute the
software, documents, datasets, images and other sources of
information that are produced for general availability on
the network today.

Those groups wishing to set up an Anonymous FTP Archive
should refer to "A Guide to Anonymous FTP Site Administra-
tion" [2], which provides details on why you would want to
set up such an archive and what steps are required to have a
secure, well-maintained system.

This document specifies a range of indexing information that
can be used to describe the contents and services provided
by such archives.  This information can be used directly by
the user community when visiting parts of the archive.
Furthermore, automatic indexing tools can gather and index
this information, thus making it easier for users to find
and access it. Although not required, providing such infor-
mation will make the archive a more useful resource.

It is intended that this information be made available
through anonymous FTP archives although the templates
described may also be made available through any other
information access mechanism. It is beyond the scope of this
document to provide specific transformations to other
mechanisms since the individual encoding method used will
necessarily depend on several external factors such as
operating systems and network protocols used.

Section 5 of this document contains definitions of the ter-
minology used, as well as issues related to the use and con-
struction of the information to be distributed.

In Section 6 we make recommendations that are intended to
provide a standardized means for sharing information about
the contents of a specific archive site such as as services
provided by the institution, document abstracts, and
software descriptions. In addition administrative contacts,
local time zone and other site-specific details may be

Section 7 contains a set of encoding procedures for the
information outlined in Section 6. The encoding is suffi-
ciently general to be deployed on a variety of operating
systems, and sufficiently flexible to allow the AFA adminis-
trator to take into account site-specific issues such as
file system organisation. It is expected that where specific
environments have special considerations, conventions for
transforming the information can easily be defined.

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Interested parties may also want to refer to the companion
document "Data Element Templates for Internet Information
Objects" [8] for fully expanded data templates defined in
this document.

5.  Administration

5.1.  Scope of this document

The templates listed below are not intended to comprehen-
sively describe all possible information that could be pro-
vided, but rather to cover common, useful elements. The
determination about what specific information to provide
will have to be made on a case by case basis.  Those indivi-
duals or groups completing the information have to determine
how appropriate a particular data element is for their
needs. In many cases data elements such as "home telephone
number" would be not be desirable in databases open for pub-
lic access.  However, in some cases they may be useful and
thus have been included in this document.

NOTE: Issues of privacy, security and maintainability should
all be considered when determining what information to pro-

This document does not mandate or require that any particu-
lar class of information be offered. However it is hoped
that those sites wishing to offer the information described
in this document adhere to the formats recommended in Sec-
tion 7.

5.2.  Definitions

For the purposes of this document, the term "data element"
is defined to be a discrete (though not necessarily atomic)
piece of information.  For example, a name, telephone number
or postal address would all be considered a "data element".
The granularity at which a data element is defined is deter-
mined by the purpose for which it is intended. The term
"field" is interchangeable with "data element".

"Templates" are logical groupings of one or more data ele-

Collectively the templates described in this document will
be referred to as "indexing" or "data" templates.

A "resource" is any network object being described. This
could be a "physical" object like a file, document or
printer, or it may be a "service" such as a weather or
Domain Name System server. Any object which can be referred
to as being accessible or addressable on the network is a

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A "record" is an instance of the template with the appropri-
ate fields filled in for a particular resource.

5.3.  Uniform Resource Identifiers and Directory Services

The templates below generally describe network accessible
resources, and people connected with these resources, and as
such it is important to uniquely identify both resources and

Work is currently underway for the construction of what are
known as "Uniform Resource Identifiers" (URI). These will be
structured strings whose purpose is to uniquely identify any
resource on the Internet to determine access and identifica-
tion information for that resource.  This not only includes
documents, software packages etc., but also images, interac-
tive services and physical resources. This concept has been
integrated into the data templates. While it is expected
that ultimately location independent identifiers will be
used, the examples in this document utilize the Uniform
Resource Locators as defined in [3].

Because there are no ubiquitous directory services to look
up personal details for people the templates below contain
facilities for these personal details to be provided.

It is likely that in the relatively near future directory
services will be tested and deployed that will provide for
both White Pages (locating personal details) and locating
resources (Yellow Pages).  It is expected support for these
can be easily added to the templates defined in this docu-

5.3.1.  Variant Information

Often a particular resource is available in a number of
variants. For example, a document may exist both in standard
pre-formatted ASCII (a "text" file) and PostScript versions,
or may be available in a number of different languages.

The person or group indexing the resource must determine
which resources have equivalent "intellectual content", and
if so describe them as variants of a single resource. By
providing information such as location, format, character
sets, languages etc. for each variant, a user searching the
index is provided with enough context to make an informed
decision as to which variant to retrieve.

It is hoped and expected that the methods of dealing with
variant information described in this document will be
superseded by a more comprehensive directory service system
in the relatively near future.

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5.4.  Machine vs. human readbility

At the heart of some data element definitions is their abil-
ity to be parsed and "understood" by computer programs. It
is hoped and expected that much of the information provided
in the IAFA templates described below will be collected and
indexed by automated processes without human intervention.
As a result, care has been taken to restrict the syntax and
semantics of data element names and some values so as to
facilitate these procedures.

6.  Configuration and Contents Information

In this section we define a recommended set of indexing
information that you could make available as the administra-
tor of an archive site.  In doing so, you would extend the
functionality of your archive, as well as the functionality
of indexing and resource discovery tools that can pick up
and redistribute such information.

6.1.  Handles

Handles for individuals or organizations, if used, are
defined to be a printable string that uniquely identify the
individual or group, within the context of the service pro-
viding the handle. These are to be used as a shorthand
method of referring to the complete organization or indivi-
dual record and should be used in preference to the complete
entry. Indexing tools which gather template information
should be aware that once removed from a particular context,
handles may no longer be unique and techniques must be used
to ensure uniqueness out of context, or to expand the handle
into associated values in the record.

6.2.  Clusters: common data elements

There are certain classes of data elements, such as contact
information, which occur every time an individual, group or
organization needs to be described. Such data as names,
telephone numbers, postal and email addresses etc. fall into
this category. To avoid repeating these common elements
explicitly in every template below, we define "clusters"
which can then be referred to in a shorthand manner in the
actual template definitions. Predefined symbols specifying
these clusters will then be used in their place, with a pre-
fix which determines to whom or to what this information

In those cases where multiple instances of a cluster have to
be defined (for example, to describe multiple authors of a
book), then "variant" syntax applies. See section 3.2 "Vari-
ant fields".

The following clusters have been identified:

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6.2.1.  Individuals

In order to describe each individual in a particular tem-
plate, the following common data element subcomponents are

     - Name of individual.

     - Name of organization to which individual belongs or
       under whose authority this information is being made.

     - Type of organization to which this individual belong
       (University, commercial organization etc.)

     - Work telephone number of individual.

     - FAX (facsimile) telephone number of individual.

     - Postal address of individual.

     - Job title of individual (if appropriate).

     - Department to which individual belongs.

     - Electronic mail address of individual.

     - Home telephone number of individual.

     - Home postal address of individual.

     - Handle.

6.2.2.  Organizations

The following elements apply when describing organizations
and are a subset of those listed above for individuals.
Obviously some of the elements above (such as home phone
number) make no sense when being applied to an organization.
As above, the following may be subcomponents in a larger,
hierarchically structured data element name.

     - Name of organization.

     - Type of organization to which this individual or
       group belongs (University, commercial organization

     - Postal address of organization.

     - Electronic mail address of organization.

     - Phone number of organization.

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     - Fax number of organization.

     - City of organization.

     - State (province) of organization.

     - Country of organization.

     - Handle.

6.2.3.  Resource Information

The following is a list of generic data element subcom-
ponents used when referring to particular resources.

     - A title for the resource.

     - Uniform Resource Identifier.

     - Description.

     - Any keywords which might be applied to the resource
       that would facilitate users' locating this informa-

     - Type of resource.

     - City of resource.

     - State (or Province) of resource.

     - Country of resource.

     - Comment.

     - Details describing when the record was last main-
       tained, and by who.

6.3.  Site-specific configuration information

Information about your archive site itself can often be
valuable to users of your system in order for them to util-
ize the resource in an efficient manner.

6.3.1.  Configuration Information

Site configuration information will help users better under-
stand your wishes on how and when to access your AFA. This
would include such information as:

     - Primary host name of the AFA.

     - A valid Domain Name System alias (CNAME) for this
       host [5].

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     - Individual contact information for site owner(s).

     - Individual contact information for site maintainer

     - Sponsoring organization contact information.

     - The geographical (latitude/longitude) location.

     - The time zone of the site.

     - Individual contact information for last person last
       modifying this record.

     - The frequency with which the archive site is gen-
       erally modified.

     - Times of preferred access for this site.

     - A summary of the access policies of this site. This
       should include such information as preferred times of
       usage, conventions or restrictions for uploading
       files to this site etc.

     - A brief description of the kind of information stored
       at this anonymous FTP archive. If the site is
       intended to specialize in a particular type of infor-
       mation (examples might include software for a
       specific machine type, on-line copies of a particular
       type of literature or research papers and information
       in a particular branch of science or arts) you should
       indicate this.

     - Resource information as defined in the resource clus-

6.3.2.  Logical archives configuration

One physical archive site may possibly contain multiple
"logical" archives. For example, a single archive host may
be shared amongst multiple departments, each responsible for
the administration of their own part of the anonymous FTP
directory subtree.

Some information (such as a host's location) will remain
constant for the site as a whole. We therefore recommend
that you list Logical Archive specific and site-specific
information separately.

     - Individual contact information for site maintainer

     - A valid Domain Name System alias (CNAME) for this
       host [5] when referring to this logical archive.

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     - Owning organization contact information.

     - Sponsoring organization contact information.

     - Individual contact information for last person last
       modifying this record.

     - A summary of the access policies of this logical

     - A summary of the type of information that this logi-
       cal archive may specialize in.

     - The frequency with which the archive site is gen-
       erally modified.

     - Resource information as defined in the resource clus-

6.4.  Site-specific content and service information

The preceding collections of information make available
access and utilization policies for a site. You could also
wish to make available a selection of information about the
actual contents of your archive or the services available
from your organization or institution.

The host system providing the resources need not be the same
physical site on which the descriptive information below is
stored. Thus at a University an AFA maintained by the cen-
tral campus administration could advertize services provided
by individual departments who might not have an AFA of their
own. Similarly, mailing lists provided on other administra-
tively related hosts (such as in the same organization) may
have the indexing information available on one host while
the actual mailing list is provided by another machine.

The following categories have been identified.

6.4.1.  Service

The archive can offer an overall description of each of the
various Internet services offered by your organization's
systems, along with corresponding contact information.

This description would then indicate whether the parent
organization offers such services as:

     o+ on-line library catalogues.

     o+ Interactive on-line information services such as
       WAIS, gopher, Prospero, World Wide Web or archie.

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     o+ specialized information servers such as those provid-
       ing weather, geographic information, newswire feeds

     o+ Other information services.

The following information can be made available:

     - Title of service.

     - URI of service.

     - A description of the service.

     - Any keywords which might be applied to the record
       that would facilitate users finding this service.

     - Contact information for service administration.

     - Authentication information (login name, password etc.
       if required) or method for authentication (private
       key etc.)

     - Description of registration process.

     - Charging policies for service.

     - Policies and restrictions on service use.

     - Access times for service.

6.4.2.  Documents, Datasets, Mailing List Archives, Usenet
Archives, Software Packages, Images and other objects

You might wish to make available a brief description of
available software, documents, images, sounds, video,
datasets, USENET [6] archives and mailing list information
through the AFA.

Some of the information classes described may not be appli-
cable to each of the above objects.

This is NOT intended to be an official catalog entry in the
sense used by librarians. It is a simple way to describe
documents and announce their availability. More formal
methods may be used elsewhere to further describe the docu-

     - Type of object.

     - Category (for documents this would be technical
       report, conference paper etc.)

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     - Name of object. For example, the name of the mailing
       list, software package or title of the document.

     - Names and other contact information on the authors.

     - Names and other contact information for object

     - Version designator.

     - Source of data.

     - Abstract/description of the object.

     - Bibliographic entry.

     - Citation.

     - Special considerations or restrictions on the
       object's use (e.g., in the case of a software package
       programming languages/environments needed, hardware
       restrictions, etc.).

     - Publication status (For documents: draft, published
       etc. For software packages: beta test, production

     - Contact information of publisher.

     - Copyright and copying policy.

     - Creation date.

     - Appropriate keywords for this object.

     - Discussion forums appropriate for this object (mail-
       ing lists, USENET newsgroups etc.)

     - Format of the object (variant).

     - Size (variant).

     - Language (variant).

     - Character set (variant).

     - ISBN (variant).

     - ISSN (variant).

     - Method of access (anonymous FTP etc.).

     - Last revision date (variant).

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     - Library Cataloging information.

     - URI (variant).

7.  Information Encoding

In this section we offer a recommended encoding format for
each of the standard items of information suggested in Sec-
tion 2.

We offer such a standardized format so that if such informa-
tion is to be offered, it is formatted in such a way that it
can be utilized by automated indexing and retrieval tools.
The encoding methods proposed were developed to be extensi-
ble, so that additional information can be offered in a
similar format, if the site administrator so wishes.

Developing such recommendations offers several challenges.
It is hoped that the encoding conventions should be applica-
ble to as wide a variety of operating systems, file struc-
tures and encoding schemes as possible. In addition, the
globalization of the Internet requires attention to con-
straints such as the language in use at an archive site.

In addition, the encoding methods proposed must be easy to
implement and, for the moment, use existing methods of
access and retrieval. We currently assume that the site
language is English and the encoding ASCII, but it is
expected that additional formats for other languages and
encoding schemes will be developed over time.

7.1.  Data element Structure

All data elements have been defined as "attribute/value"
pairs which can be generically described as:

         <data element name>: <data element value>

where <data element name> would for example be "Work-Phone"
and the <data element value> would be "+1 514 555 1212"
(note that the double quotes (") are not part of the
strings, but serve here to delimit the example).

The term "field name" is interchangeable with "data element
name". The term "field value" is interchangeable with "data
element value".

All data element names may contain only alphanumeric charac-
ters, the hyphen ("-") and hash (number sign, pound sign
"#"). No embedded spaces are allowed. All data element names
are case insensitive although here initial letters are capi-
talized for readability.

Some data elements may be for internal use to the site

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administrator only, and are to be ignored by automated
indexing. These field names must start with the hash charac-
ter "#". All other rules for line continuation remain the

Field data must be separated from fieldname by a colon and
optional whitespace. Any field may continue on the next line
by whitespace in the first column of that line. Multi-line
fields are delimited by the first line which does not have
whitespace in the first column, or is blank. Whitespace
between continuation lines is to be collasped into a single
space character by processing software (Except in the URI
field, where this space is removed).

Data element names without associated field values are
allowed, but have no significance.

Multiple values for the same data element are allowed, and
are taken to indicate equally appropriate alternatives.

Data elements may occur in any order. However, for easier
readability it is recommended to start with the Template-
Type, Description, and keywords, followed by other non-
variant fields, followed by variant fields grouped per vari-

It is intended that wherever possible and necessary, a
well-defined hierarchical structure will be used when defin-
ing data element names.  This allows them to be generally
and logically extensible.

7.1.1.  Variant Fields

In section 5.3.1 we describe some information as being
"variant" in that network objects may vary in "format" but
are judged to have the same "intellectual content". In the
following data element definitions we use the technique of
allowing a sequence number to be appended to a set of data
elements to describe a particular variant.

For example, we have a document "War and Peace" which exists
in ASCII text, PostScript and NROFF format. The PostScript
version also exists in two natural languages, English and
Russian. We define here 3 data elements:  "Filename",
"Language" and "Format". In addition to the other informa-
tion stored in the indexing record for "War and Peace" which
we consider to remain constant across all variants, (like
the name of the author), we can add the following data ele-

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   Format-v0:   PostScript
   Language-v0: English
   Format-v1:   PostScript
   Language-v1: Russian
   Format-v2:   ASCII
   Language-v2: English
   Format-v3:   nroff
   Language-v3: English

The "-v<number>" syntax allows one to repeat a set of data
elements for a particular variant and tie them all together
with a common sequence <number> so that individual instances
of the particular resource with the desired characteristics
may be located.

<number> is an arbitrary number with the only restriction
that all data elements with that particular sequence value
are logically connected in a similar manner to that illus-
trated above.

The variant number need not exist when variants are not
being described and the "-v<number>" syntax may be omitted
in those cases.

In the data element definitions below, the syntax "-v*" will
be used to identify those elements for which variants are

7.2.  Data Formats

To facilitate the machine readability of certain data ele-
ments, the following syntaxes are to be used for particular
types of fields:

1)   All electronic mail (Email) addresses must be as
     defined in RFC 822, Section 6 [10]. Names and comments
     may be included in the Email address.

     For example:

             "John Doe" <>



     are valid Email addresses.

2)   All hostnames are to be given as Fully Qualified Domain

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     Names as defined in RFC 1034, Section 3 [3].

     For example: ""

3)   All host IP addresses are given in "dotted-quad" (or
     "dotted-decimal") notation.

     For example: ""

4)   All numeric values are in decimal unless otherwise

5)   Dates/times must be given as defined in RFC 822, Sec-
     tion 5.1 [10] and modified in RFC 1123, Section 5.2.14

        date-time   =  [ day "," ] date [time]

        day         =  "Mon"  / "Tue" /  "Wed"  / "Thu"
                    /  "Fri"  / "Sat" /  "Sun"

        date        = 1*2DIGIT month 2*4DIGIT        ; day month year
                                                     ;  e.g. 20 Jun 1982

        month       =  "Jan"  /  "Feb" /  "Mar"  /  "Apr"
                    /  "May"  /  "Jun" /  "Jul"  /  "Aug"
                    /  "Sep"  /  "Oct" /  "Nov"  /  "Dec"

        time        =  hour zone                    ; ANSI

        hour        =  2DIGIT ":" 2DIGIT [":" 2DIGIT]
                                                    ; 00:00:00 - 23:59:59

        zone        =  "UT"  / "GMT"                ; Universal Time
                                                    ; North American : UT
                    /  "EST" / "EDT"                ;  Eastern:  - 5/ - 4
                    /  "CST" / "CDT"                ;  Central:  - 6/ - 5
                    /  "MST" / "MDT"                ;  Mountain: - 7/ - 6
                    /  "PST" / "PDT"                ;  Pacific:  - 8/ - 7
                    / ( ("+" / "-") 4DIGIT )        ; Local differential
                                                    ;  hours+min. (HHMM)

     For example the string "Sat, 18 Jun 1993 12:36:47
     -0500" is a valid date, and the string "12:36:47 GMT"
     is a valid time. Quoting from RFC 1123, Section 5.2.14
     [7]: "There is a strong trend towards the use of
     numeric timezone indicators, and implementations SHOULD
     use numeric timezones instead of timezone names. How-
     ever, all implementations MUST accept either notation.
     If timezone names are used, they MUST be exactly as
     defined in RFC-822."

6)   Time ranges (or periods) must be specified as pairs of

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     time values (as defined above in note (5)), separated
     by a "/". Multiple time ranges are separated by whi-
     tespace. All times in a range should be specified with
     the same timezone.

     For example:

             12:00 GMT / 05:45 GMT

7)   "whitespace" is defined as one or more blank (hex 0x20)
     and/or tab (octal 11) ASCII characters.

8)   References to "UT" mean Universal Time (also known as
     Greenwich Mean Time or "GMT").

9)   All telephone numbers are to be given as a minimum in
     full, with a leading '+' and country and routing codes
     without non-space separators. The number should be
     given assuming someone calling internationally (without
     local access codes). The number given in the local con-
     vention may optionally be specified in bracktes.

     For example,

             Telephone: +44 71 732 8011


             Telephone: +1 514 875 8189  (0514-875-8611)

10)  Latitude and longitude are specified in that order as



             DD is in degrees
             MM is in minutes
             SS is in seconds
             C is the direction designator which is

             For latitude
             "+"  is north of the equator
             "-"  is south of the equator

             For longitude
             "+"  is west of the Greenwich meridian
             "-"  is east of the Greenwich meridian

     The double quotes (") are not part of the designator,

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     but are used here to delimit the symbols.

11)  Person name fields should conform to a particular for-
     mat (based on bibtex[11]), so that they can be parsed
     into parts.  A name can have four parts: first, von,
     last, junior, each  of which can consist of more than
     one word.  For example, "John Paul von Braun, Jr." has
     "John  Paul"  as  the  first  part, "von"  as  the von
     part, "Braun" as the last part, and "Jr." as the junior
     part.  Use one of these formats for a name:

                  First von Last
                  von Last, First
                  von Last, Junior, First

     The last part is assumed to be one word, or all the words
     after the von part. Anything in braces will be treated as
     one word, so use braces to surround last names that contain
     more than one word. The von part is recognized by looking
     for words that begin with lowercase letters. When possible,
     enter the full first name(s). Actually, the rules for isolating
     the name parts are a bit more complicated, so they do the
     right thing for names like "de la Grand Round, Chuck".

     If there are multiple authors or editors, they should
     all be separated by the word and.

7.3.  File Record Structure

An indexing file can contain zero or more records, which are
made up of collections of data elements. Records are delim-
ited by one or more blank lines (lines which contain zero or
more whitespace characters and the NEWLINE character).
Because blank lines are used to delimit records they are not
allowed to occur in a record.

This allows templates relating to the same resource, for
example records describing documentation and software
belonging to a single package, to be compiled in a single
location. In addition it allows indexing files describing
different resources to be combined by simply concatenating
the separate indexing files.

Leading and trailing blank lines on the indexing file are
allowed, but not significant. Empty indexing files are to be

7.4.  File Location and Naming

For the greatest flexibility, it is assumed that unless oth-
erwise stated each file containing the indexing information
may reside anywhere in the anonymous FTP subtree and in
addition, any number of these files may exist. The intention
here is that they may be placed in the same location as the

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information they are indexing. You, as the administrator are
free to place these files wherever you think appropriate in
most cases. However, some files may carry information from
their place in the directory structure and therefore they
may not just be randomly placed in the archive.

In order for tools to easily identify an indexing file from
the other data files at the archive site, all indexing
filenames must end with a ".AFA" filename extension.

Indexing files should be made world readable. It is assumed
that size and modification times can be obtained through
existing access mechanisms and are operating system

The advantages to this system are that this information need
only be constructed once with infrequent periodic updates as
changes occur.  Several of these files may never change dur-
ing the lifetime of the host as an anonymous FTP site. They
require no special programs or protocols to construct: a
text editor is all that is needed.

7.5.  Clusters: Common Data Elements

As described in Section 6.2, there are number of data ele-
ments which are often needed and which form a natural group-
ing for certain kinds of information ("clusters"). Below we
define the data element names and semantics of these clus-

These clusters are intended to provide the lowest level in
the hierarchical structure of data element names. For exam-
ple, contact information for the authors of a document would
be preceded by the string "Author-" thus forming data ele-
ments of "Author-Name", "Author-Postal", "Author-Fax", etc.

NOTE: In the definitions below, the fields are separated by
blank lines ONLY to improve readability, these lines must
NOT occur in an actual record.

7.5.1.  Individuals or Groups

   Data Element Name        Description

   Name                     Name of individual.

   Work-Phone               Work telephone number of indivi-

   Work-Fax                 FAX (facsimile) telephone number
                            of individual.

   Work-Postal              Postal address of individual.

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   Job-Title                Job title of individual (if

   Department               Department to which individual

   Email                    Electronic mail address of indi-

   Handle                   Unique identifier for this

   Home-Phone               Home telephone number of indivi-

   Home-Postal              Home postal address of indivi-

   Home-Fax                 FAX (facsimile) telephone number
                            of individual.

This cluster can also contain any of the elements of the
ORGANIZATION cluster described in 7.5.2, to describe the
organization to which individual belongs or under whose
authority the information is being made.

This cluster will be referred to as "USER*" in the template
definitions below.

7.5.2.  Organisations

The following elements apply when describing organizations
and are a subset of those listed above for individuals and
groups. Obviously some of the elements above (such as home
phone number) make no sense when being applied to an organi-
zation. As above, the following may be subcomponents in a
larger, hierarchically structured data element name.

   Data Element Name        Description.

   Organization-Name        Name of organization.

   Organization-Type        Type of organization (Univer-
                            sity, commercial organization

   Organization-Postal      Postal address of organization.

   Organization-City        City of organization.

   Organization-State       State (province) of organiza-

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   Organization-Country     Country of organization.

   Organization-Email       Electronic mail address of

   Organization-Phone       Phone number of organization.

   Organization-Fax         Fax number of organization.

   Organization-Handle      Handle of organization.

This cluster will be referred to as "ORGANIZATION*" in the
template definitions below.

7.5.3.  Miscellaneous

The following is a list of generic data element subcom-
ponents used when referring to particular resources. These
can be added to any of the templates described below.

   Data Element Name        Description

   Title                    A complete title for the

   Description              Description of resource.

   Keywords                 Any keywords which might be
                            applied to the record that would
                            facilitate users' finding this

   URI                      Uniform Resource Identifier

   Access-Method            Free-text description of access
                            method if no URI syntax has been

   City                     City of resource.

   State                    State (Province, etc.) of

   Country                  Country of resource.

7.5.4.  Maintenance

The following is a list of generic data elements used to
indicate when the record was last maintained.

   Data Element Name        Description

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                            Contact information for indivi-
                            dual who last modified this

   Record-Last-Modified-Date:The date this record was last

                            Contact information of person or
                            group last verifying that this
                            record was accurate.

   Record-Last-Verified-Date:The date the last time this
                            record was verified.

8.  Template Definitions

NOTE: In the definitions below, the fields are separated by
blank lines ONLY to improve readability, these lines must
NOT occur in an actual record.

8.1.  Site Information

IMPORTANT: There should only be one instance of this tem-
plate in each archive.

Fields for this template.

   Template-Name:           SITEINFO

   Host-Name:               Primary Domain Name System host

   Host-Alias:              Preferred DNS-registered name
                            for the AFA host. This name must
                            be valid CNAME entry in the
                            Domain Name System.

   Admin-(USER*):           Contact information of the indi-
                            vidual or group responsible for
                            administering this site.

   Owner-(ORGANIZATION*):   Contact information for the
                            organization owning this site.

                            Contact information for the
                            organization sponsoring this

   City:                    City of the host.

   State:                   State (province) of the host.

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   Country:                 Country of the host.

   Latitude-Longitude:      Latitude and longitude of site.

   Timezone:                Timezone as defined in section
                            7.2 above.

   Update-Frequency:        Preferred frequency of retrieval
                            of all AFA extended configura-
                            tion information by automated
                            retrieval tools. (See Note <1>)

   Access-Times:            Time ranges (as defined in Sec-
                            tion 7.2) of access to anonymous
                            FTP users.

   Access-Policy:           Information such as conventions
                            or restrictions for uploading
                            files to this site etc.

   Description:             This file contains text describ-
                            ing any areas of specialization
                            for this site. For example, if
                            the site contains information
                            related to the field of molecu-
                            lar biology a paragraph or two
                            with the keywords "molecular
                            biology" and some further
                            description would be in order.
                            It should also mention if this
                            site contains "logical"

   Keywords:                Appropriate keywords describing
                            contents of this AFA.

Notes for this template:

<1>  The period is measured in days. This value should be
     chosen to reflect the turnover of information at the

An example of a SITEINFO record:

   Template-Type:           SITEINFO



   Admin-Name:              John Doe

   Admin-Work-Postal:       PO Box. 6977, Marinetown, PA

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   Admin-Work-Phone:        +1 717 555 1212

   Admin-Work-Fax:          +1 717 555 1213


   Owner-Organization-Name: Beyond All Recognition Founda-

   City:                    Lampeter

   State:                   Pennsylvania

   Country:                 USA

   Latitude-Longitude:      -37.24.43/+121.58.54

   Timezone:                -0400

   Record-Last-Modified-Name:John Doe


   Record-Last-Modified-Date:Mon, 10 Feb 1992 22:43:31 EST

   Update-Frequency:        10

   Access-Times:            02:00 GMT / 08:00 GMT  18:00 GMT
                            / 21:00 GMT

   Access-Policy:           Non-proprietary data may be
                            uploaded to this site in the
                            "incoming" directory.  Please
                            contact site administrators if
                            you do so. Proprietary material
                            found in this directory will be
                            removed. This site is not to be
                            used as a temporary storage

   Description:             This site contains data relating
                            to DNA sequencing particularly
                            Yeast chromosome 1. Datasets are
                            available. There is also a
                            selection of programs available
                            for manipulating this informa-

   Keywords:                DNA, sequencing, yeast, genome,

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8.2.  Logical Archive Information

IMPORTANT: The placement of this file in the file structure
is significant: It implies that the directory in which this
file exists and all subdirectories are part of the logical

   Template-Type:           LARCHIVE

   Admin-(USER*):           Contact information of the indi-
                            vidual or group responsible for
                            administering this site.

   Host-Name:               Primary Domain Name System host

   Host-Alias:              Preferred DNS-registered name
                            for the AFA host as this logical
                            archive. This name must be valid
                            CNAME entry in the Domain Name

   Owner-(ORGANIZATION*):   Contact information for the
                            organization owning this site.

                            Contact information for the
                            organization sponsoring this

   Access-Policy            Information such as conventions
                            or restrictions for uploading
                            files to this logical archive.

   Description              Contains text describing any
                            area of specialization for the
                            logical archive.

   Update-Frequency         Preferred frequency of retrieval
                            of all AFA extended configura-
                            tion information by automated
                            retrieval tools. (See Note <1>)

   Keywords                 Appropriate keywords describing
                            contents of this logical AFA.

Notes for this template:

<1>  The period is measured in days. This value should be
     chosen to reflect how often information at the archive

An example of a LARCHIVE record:

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   Template-Type:           LARCHIVE

   Owner-Organization-Name: Orymonix Incorporated

   Owner-Organization-Type: Commercial


   Access-Policy:           This archive is open to general

   Description:             This archive contains essays on
                            Military Intelligence, Postal
                            Service and Progressive Conser-
                            vatism. All material contained
                            in this archive is in the public

   Admin-Name:              Ima Admin


   Admin-Work-Phone:        +44 71 123 4567

   Admin-Work-Fax:          +44 71 123 5678

   Admin-Postal:            555 Marsden Road, London, SE15

   Record-Last-Modified-Name:Yuri Tolstoy


   Record-Last-Modified-Date:Mon, 21 Jun 1993 17:03:23 EDT

   Update-Frequency:        20

   Keywords:                Militarism, Post Office, Conser-

8.3.  Automatic File Update Information

Any number of these files may exist in the archive.

   Template-Type:           MIRROR

   Admin-(USER*):           Contact information of the indi-
                            vidual or group responsible for
                            administering this mirror.

   Owner-(ORGANIZATION*):   Information on organization
                            responsible for this mirror

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   Title:                   The title of the package.

   Description:             Text describing the package.

   Reference-URI:           The starting point. This is the
                            initial site the package can be
                            found of.  As there may be more
                            than one file or directory
                            belonging to this package this
                            is a -v* type. Specified as an
                            URI. (See Note <1>)

   Source-URI:              The location the package is mir-
                            rored from. This may itself be a
                            mirror site of Reference-URI or
                            another Source-URI. Specified as
                            an URI.

   Destination-URI:         The location the package can be
                            found locally. Specified as an

   Timezone:                The timezone this site is in.
                            (see section 7.2 of this docu-

   Update-Frequency:        The Source-Site is checked each
                            this number of days or on these
                            days.  (See Note <2>)

   Update-Time:             The time of day the update is
                            started.  This is important for
                            chained updates, i.e. sites
                            using this site as Source-URI.

   Update-Policy:           This is how the update is done.
                            There are a few valid keywords.
                            See Note <3> for more informa-

                            Substitute expression. This may
                            used to reorganize e.g. a flat
                            directory on Source-URI into
                            various subdirectories on

   Update-Transfer-Pattern: A regular expression. Only files
                            matching this pattern on
                            Source-URI will be

   Update-Exclude-Pattern:  A regular expression. Files
                            matching this pattern on

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                            Source-URI will not be

                            A regular expression. Used for
                            packing or re-packing files
                            being updated/ fetched.  (see
                            Note <4>)

   Update-Software:         Name and version of the software
                            used for the automatic updates.

Notes for this template:

<1>  The -v* form is especially useful, if you mirror a
     package within a directory called "path", but you don't
     mirror the whole "path", but only the "src" and "doc"

<2>  This may be any number or one or more of the (comma
     seperated) words "Mon", "Tue", Wed", "Thu", "Fri",
     "Sat" or "Sun".

<3>  Valid keywords are:

     autodelete     files will be automatically deleted,
                    when they are no longer found on

     sizechange     files will also be updated if only the
                    size but not the time changed on the

     newer          files will be updated if the file on
                    Source-URI is newer than the one on

     maxdays=num    files will not be fetched/updated if its
                    modification time has a difference
                    bigger than <num> days to the file on

     recursive      directories will be mirrored recursively
                    (otherwise only the contents of the
                    "flat" directory will be updated and no
                    subdirectories will be checked).

<4>  This specifies whether e.g. *.tar files will be packed
     (and therefor renamed) to *.tar.Z or *.tar.gz, or
     whether e.g. *.Z files will be packed and renamed to

This is an example of a MIRROR record.

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   Template-Type:           MIRROR

   Admin-Name:              John Long Silver


   Admin-Home-Phone:        +1 222 333 4567

   Admin-Organization-Name: The Pirates Club

   Title:                   The ultimate treasury package

   Description:             This package helps you to become
                            rich, and richer and richer. It
                            shows how to collect money and
                            hide it from anyone within your
                            computer. You can use a program
                            from this package to materialize
                            the money again, later.

   Record-Last-Modified-Name:Sailor One

   Record-Last-Modified-Date:Sat, 15 Jan 1994 02:47:57 GMT

   Record-Last-Verified-Name:Sailer Two

   Record-Last-Verified-Date:Sat, 15 Jan 1994 02:47:57 GMT



   Destination-URI-v0:      ftp://ftp.jamaica/pub/coins/



   Destination-URI-v1:      ftp://ftp.jamaica/pub/coins/

   Timezone:                -0700

   Update-Frequency:        Mon, Wed, Fri

   Update-Time:             02:00

   Update-Policy:           sizechange, maxdays=14, recur-



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   Update-Software:         coin-transfer, version 3.17

8.4.  Content Information

For the following categories the assumption should not be
made that the information applies to the anonymous FTP host
itself. Rather, it applies to the material on the Archive.

8.4.1.  User Information

So as not to require the repetition of the USER* information
each time this cluster is needed in other templates, we
define here a USER template in which the information can be
stored in one place.  Assuming the use of a unique handle,
other records may then use a handle to refer to this record.
The definition is simply the data elements listed in 7.5.1

The Template-Type is USER.

8.4.2.  Organization Information

In a similar manner to the USER template, the ORGANIZATION
template provides common information which may be used in
other (larger) templates to yield a central source of infor-

The Template-Type is ORGANIZATION.

8.4.3.  Service Information

These are the fields for the SERVICE template.

   Template-Type:           SERVICE

   Title:                   Title of service.

   URI:                     URI of service.

   Admin-(USER*):           Contact information of person or
                            group responsible for service
                            administration (administrative

   Owner-(ORGANIZATION*):   Information on organization
                            responsible for this service.

                            Contact information for the
                            organization sponsoring this

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   Description:             Free text description of ser-

   Authentication:          Authentication information. Free
                            text field supplying login and
                            password information (if neces-
                            sary) or other method for

   Registration:            How to register for this service
                            if general access is not avail-

   Charging-Policy:         Free text field describing any
                            charging mechanism in place.
                            Additionally, fee structure may
                            be included in this field.

   Access-Policy:           Policies and restrictions for
                            using this service.

   Access-Times:            Time ranges for mandatory or
                            preferred access of service.

   Keywords:                Keywords appropriate for
                            describing this service.

Example 1:

The following is an example of an entry for a telnet ser-

   Template-Type:           SERVICE

   Title:                   Census Bureau information server

   URI:                     telnet://

   Admin-Name:              Jay Bond

   Admin-Postal:            PO Box. 42, A Street Washington
                            DC, USA 20001

   Admin-Work-Phone:        +1 202 222 3333

   Admin-Work-Fax:          +1 202 444 5555


   Description:             This server provides information
                            from the latest USA Census
                            Bureau statistics (1990) Type
                            "help" for more information.

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   Authentication:          Once connected type your email
                            address at the "login:" prompt.
                            No password is required.

   Registration:            No formal registration is

   Charging-Policy:         There is no charge for the use
                            of this service

   Access-Times:            9:00 EST / 17:00 EST

   Access-Policy:           This service may not be used by
                            sites in the Republic of the

   Keywords:                census, population, 1990,

   Record-Last-Modified-Name:Miss Moneypenny


   Record-Last-Modified-Date:Wed, 1 Jan 1970 12:00:00 GMT

Example 2:

The following is an example of a mailing list (service).

   Template-Type:           SERVICE

   Title:                   fishlovers


   Admin-Name:              Ima Adams


   Registration:            Send mail to the administrative
                            address with your own email
                            address requesting addition

   Description:             Discussion list for people who
                            love fish of all types

   Keywords:                fish, aquarium, marine, freshwa-
                            ter, saltwater

   Access-Policy:           Any Internet user may subscribe
                            to this mailing list

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8.4.4.  Documents, Datasets, Mailing List Archives, Usenet
Archives, Software Packages, Images and other objects

These templates all contain the same fields, but have dif-
ferent "Template-Type" values. Suggestions for these types

   Type of Object                  Template-Type

   Document:                       DOCUMENT

   Image:                          IMAGE

   Software Package:               SOFTWARE

   Mailing List Archive:           MAILARCHIVE

   Usenet Archive:                 USENET

   Sound File:                     SOUND

   Video File:                     VIDEO

   Frequently Asked Questions File:FAQ

Other names may be added to future releases of this docu-

   Template-Type:           See above list

   Category:                Type of object. See Note <1>

   Title:                   Complete title of the object.

   URI-v*:                  Description of access to object.

   Short-Title:             Summary title (if the Title is
                            very long).

   Author-(USER*):          Description/contact information
                            about the authors/creators of
                            the object.

   Admin-(USER*):           Description/contact information
                            about the
                            administrators/maintainers of
                            the object.

   Source:                  Information as to the source of
                            the object.

   Requirements:            Any requirements for the use of
                            the object. A free text descrip-
                            tion of any hardware/software

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                            requirements necessary to use
                            the object.

   Description:             Description (that is, "abstract"
                            in the case of documents) of the

   Bibliography:            A bibliographic entry for the

   Citation:                The citation for the object when
                            used in other works.

   Publication-Status:      Current publication status of
                            object (draft, published etc.).

   Publisher-(ORGANIZATION*):Description/contact information
                            about object publisher.

   Copyright:               The copyright statement. Any
                            additional information on the
                            copying policy may be included.

   Creation-Date:           The creation date for the

   Discussion:              Free text description of possi-
                            ble discussion forums (USENET
                            groups, mailing lists) appropri-
                            ate for this object.

   Keywords:                Appropriate keywords for this

   Version-v*:              A version designator for the

   Format-v*:               Formats in which the object is
                            available. (See Note <2>)

   Size-v*:                 Length of object in bytes

   Language-v*:             The name of the language in
                            which the object is written. For
                            documents this would be the
                            natural language. For software
                            this would be the programming

   Character-Set-v*:        The character set of the object.
                            This should be a well-known
                            value for example "ASCII" or
                            "ISO Latin-1".

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   ISBN-v*:                 The International Standard Book
                            Number of the object.

   ISSN-v*:                 The International Standard
                            Serial Number of the object.

   Last-Revision-Date-v*:   Last date that the object was

   Library-Catalog-v*:      Library cataloging information.
                            (See Note <3>)

Notes for this template:

<1>  The intention of this field is to define the category
     of the object. For example, in the case of documents it
     could be "Technical Report", or "Conference Paper" and
     the name and date of the conference at which the paper
     was presented. It may also be something like "General
     Guide" or "User manual".

<2>  Objects are often available in several formats. For
     example, documents may be in PostScript, ASCII text,
     DVI etc. For images this may be GIF, JPEG, TIFF etc.

     Format should be specified in MIME type syntax and
     semantics where possible (See [9]).

<3>  Library cataloging numbers. In those cases where the
     number itself does not contain enough information to
     determine the cataloging scheme, the name of the scheme
     should be included.

Example 1:

Example of DOCUMENT record.

   Template-Type:           DOCUMENT

   Title:                   The Function of Homeoboxes in
                            Yeast Chromosome 1

   Author-Name:             John Doe


   Author-Home-Phone:       +1 898 555 1212

   Author-Name:             Jane Buck


   Last-Revision-Date:      27 Nov 1991

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   Category:                Conference paper. Yeastcon,
                            January 1992, Mushroom Rock, CA,

   Description:             Homeoboxes have been shown to
                            have a significant impact on the
                            expressions of genes in Chromo-
                            some 1 of Bakers' Yeast.

   Citation:                J. Doe, J. Buck, The function of
                            homeoboxes in Yeast Chromosome
                            1, Conf.  proc. Yeastcon, Janu-
                            ary 1992, Mushroom Rock, pp.

   Publication-Status:      Published


                            1212 5th Avenue NY, NY, 12001

   Copyright:               The copyright on this document
                            is held by the authors. It may
                            be freely copied and quoted as
                            long as the contribution of the
                            authors is acknowledged

   Library-Catalog:         LCC 1701D

   Keywords:                homeobox, yeast, chromosome,
                            DNA, sequencing, yeastcon

   Format-v:                Application/PostScript


   Language-v0              English

   Size-v0:                 18 pages

   Format-v1                text/plain; charset=US-ASCII


   Size-v1                  13 pages

   Language-v1              Russian

Example 2:

This is an example of a SOFTWARE record. Note the use of the

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software maintainer's "handle" instead of the explicit con-
tact information.

   Template-Type:           SOFTWARE

   Title:                   Beethoven's Fifth Player

   Version:                 67

   Author-Name:             Ludwig Van Beethoven


   Author-Fax:              +43 1 123 4567

   Admin-Handle:            berlioz01

   Description:             The program provides the novice
                            to Transitional Classical-
                            Romantic music a V-window inter-
                            face to the author's latest com-

   Abstract:                V-window based music player

   Requirements:            Requires the V-Window system
                            version 10 or higher

   Discussion:              USENET

   Copyright:               Freely redistributable for non-
                            commercial use.  Copyright held
                            by author

   Keywords:                Classical music, V-windows

   Format:                  LZ compressed

   URI:                     gopher://

9.  Security Considerations

Issues of privacy and security should all be considered when
determining what information to provide.

10.  Conclusion

This document attempts to provide the foundation for a com-
mon set of recommended cataloging practices which may be
used on the Internet to enhance the utility of Anonymous FTP
archives, currently the most widely used and supported
mechanism for general information storage and retrieval. It
is intended that these recommendations be flexible enough to
accommodate a broad spectrum of information classes and it

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is hoped that they will be widely used and that automated
tools will be developed to use the valuable information that
they make available.

11.  References

[1]  RFC 959 Postel, J.B.; Reynolds, J.K. File Transfer Pro-
     tocol. 1985 October

[2]  "A Guide to Anonymous FTP Site Administration". Work in
     progress from the Internet Anonymous FTP Archive Work-
     ing Group of the IETF.

[3]  Internet Draft "draft-ietf-uri-resource-names-02.txt"
     Work in Progress from the Uniform Resource Identifier
     Working Group of the IETF.

[4]  RFC 954 Harrenstien, K.; Stahl, M.K.; Feinler, E.J.
     NICNAME/WHOIS.  1985 October

[5]  RFC 1034 Mockapetris, P.V. Domain names - concepts and
     facilities.  1987 November

[6]  RFC 1036 Horton, M.R.; Adams, R. Standard for inter-
     change of USENET messages. 1987 December

[7]  RFC 1123 Braden, R.T.,ed. Requirements for Internet
     hosts - application and support. 1989 October

[8]  Internet Draft "Data Element Templates for Internet
     Information Objects". Work in progress from the Inter-
     net Anonymous FTP Archive Working Group of the IETF.

[9]  RFC 1521 N. Borenstein, N. Freed, "MIME  (Multipurpose
     Internet Mail Extensions) Part One:  Mechanisms for
     Specifying and Describing the Format of Internet Mes-
     sage Bodies", September 1993.

[10] RFC 822 D. Crocker, "Standard for the format of ARPA
     Internet text messages", August 1982. (Updated by
     RFC1327, RFC0987)

[11] BIBTEX(1) Manual Page, Oren Patashnik, June 1984.

12.  Authors' Addresses

        Peter Deutsch
        Bunyip Information Systems
	310 St. Catherine W., Suite 202,
	Montreal, Quebec

Expires 1 Mar 1995                                 [Page 37]

IAFA Templates                                September 1994

        Phone: +1 514 875 8611

        Alan Emtage
        Bunyip Information Systems
	310 St. Catherine W., Suite 202,
	Montreal, Quebec

        Phone: +1 514 875 8611

        Martijn Koster
        PO Box 132
        Nottingham NG7 2UU
        The United Kingdom

        Phone: +44 115 9520 576

        Markus Stumpf
        Arcisstrasse 62/II
        D-80799 Muenchen

        Phone: +49 89 2714117
        Email: stumpf@Informatik.TU-Muenchen.DE