[rrg] Recommendation suggestion from RW (v2)

Robin Whittle <rw@firstpr.com.au> Mon, 08 March 2010 19:19 UTC

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Date: Tue, 09 Mar 2010 06:19:43 +1100
From: Robin Whittle <rw@firstpr.com.au>
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Subject: [rrg] Recommendation suggestion from RW (v2)
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This is an updated version of msg06162 to use terminology compatible
with DRTM.  There's no difference in technical meaning, but I updated
the first few admin paragraphs.

This text is compatible with the Ivip drafts:

The Ivip IDs are:

    http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-whittle-ivip-arch           04
    http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-whittle-ivip-drtm           01
    http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-whittle-ivip-glossary       01
    http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-whittle-ivip-etr-addr-forw  00

  - Robin

Further to my suggestion (msg06161) that people write the
Recommendation they wish everyone would agree with, here is some text
for the currently empty Recommendation section of:


When I wrote this, I wrongly assumed the RRG participants were to
collaborate in some way on writing the Recommendation - and that it
had to be done by 2010-03-08.  Please see recent messages from Tony
Li and me in the "Recommendation and what happens next", especially
Tony's msg06192 and my msg06204 and whatever follows regarding how
the Recommendation will be written.

I would be very happy if everyone agrees to this.  However, I know
some or many people won't agree with it.

I hope to prompt some responses, with reasons for disagreement, such
as by detailed arguments regarding:

   1 - Why proposals other than Ivip would be the best choice.
       (Or if someone wants to argue why Ivip is the best choice.)

   2 - Why (in all CEE = Locator/ID Separation architectures) it is
       desirable for all hosts to take on extra routing and
       addressing responsibilities in order to avoid the additions
       to the routing system which are required in any CES
       architecture.  These additional responsibilities, involve
       move complexity, packets and traffic for all hosts, including
       those on potentially slow and flaky wireless links.

       The typical necessity of performing two (or sometimes one)
       extra Identifier -> Locator mapping lookup will frequently
       significantly delay the establishment of communications, since
       all CEE proposals involve a global mapping lookup system,
       which is inherently prone to being slow and unreliable.

   3 - Why a CEE architecture is superior to any CES architecture
       for IPv6.

   4 - What to do about the IPv4 scaling problem if the
       recommendation is purely for a CEE architecture for IPv6.

Also, I hope to prompt other people into writing their own
Recommendation text - the text they wish everyone else would agree with.

No apologies for length.  We are advising on how to proceed with a
once in several decades upgrade to IPv4 - the biggest and most widely
adopted IT system on the planet - and its heir-apparent, IPv6.  This
report is the product of an effort which began in 2006 with the RAWS
workshop in Amsterdam.

17 - Recommendation

17.1 - Summary

We believe that IETF development should focus on one or more
proposals along the lines of Ivip or LISP - both of which are
Core-Edge Separation (CES) architectures which are in principle
suitable for solving the routing scalability problems of IPv4 and
IPv6, while also supporting a global approach to mobility for both IP

In section 17.6 we list the features of such architectures which are
most desirable, and our reasons for doing so.

Both LISP and Ivip are at an early stage of development.  The exact
form and names of the future enhancements for IPv4 and IPv6 are less
important than the architectural elements they contain - and how
these elements fit together to provide synergies, architectural
elegance and suitably high levels of performance, robustness and
security.  However, we believe that the term "LISP" - being an
acronym for "Locator / Identifier Separation" - is not appropriate to
a CES architecture, since only Core-Edge Elimination (CEE)
architectures implement "Locator / Identifier Separation".  Loc/ID
Separation is a fundamentally different naming model to that used in
IPv4 and IPv6.

While we do not wish to stymie the development of CEE architectures,
we believe no such architecture is suitable for solving the practical
problems facing both IPv4 and IPv6.  CEE architectures are not
applicable to IPv4 and could only provide scalable routing benefits
to IPv6 once they were adopted by all hosts.

A more fundamental objection to CEE architectures and their "Locator
/ Identifier Separation" naming model is that the extra burdens this
model places on all hosts cannot be justified, either in terms of
greater host control over the paths taken by their packets, or in
terms of avoiding the greater complexity in the routing system which
is inherent in all CES proposals.

CES and CEE proposals involve the creation of a new mapping system
(or in some cases, for CEE, a greater reliance on DNS).  CES
architectures require a mapping system by which an "edge" address can
be looked up to return information which enables the selection of a
particular "core" address to which the traffic packet will be
tunneled.  CEE architectures require a system by which a query can be
sent with an Identifier, to return one or more Locators.  Thus, CEE
architectures are not fundamentally simpler in this regard than CES

When two CEE hosts begin a communication, there is typically the need
for each host to perform an ID->Loc lookup before the initial
two-packet exchange can be completed.  While there is typically a
similar requirement for mapping lookups with a CES architecture, the
CEE arrangements are more burdensome in general, and the CES lookups
do not involve the hosts.  A more detailed explanation of our
concerns about the extra delays, packets and host responsibilities
which are inherent in CEE architectures appears in section 17.4.

While we have made a clear decision supporting architectural elements
of two particular CES proposals, we recognise the contribution made
to scalable routing by the proponents of all the other proposals.
Scalable Routing is a decades old problem for Internet communication
and wide ranging discussions and a diversity of approaches have been
essential in choosing the best path, and prompting improvements to
the most promising architectures.

17.2 Goals

17.2.1 Statements of problems and goals

The RRG did not reach consensus on the nature of the scalable routing
problem, or on the goals for a solution.  Our choices have been based
on a broad common understanding about the nature of the scaling
problem, and our belief that any future architectural enhancement for
solving the currently evident scaling problem should also support, or
at least not impede, arrangements which will support global mobility
for IPv4 and IPv6 devices - which may soon number in the billions.

Two documents were prepared concerning scalable routing.  Firstly,
draft-irtf-rrg-design-goals-01 which was announced on 2007-07-11 on
the basis of some early discussions.  While some changes to it were
  suggested on 2007-07-14, these were neither acknowledged or
debated.  The draft has not been revised or widely discussed.  There
has been been no test of consensus support for it.

Secondly, [I-D.narten-radir-problem-statement] is an attempt at
documenting the scalable routing problem.  While it has been updated
somewhat since its inception in July 2007 and occasionally discussed
in the RRG, in March 2010, it was still being discussed and there was
no test of consensus support for it.

As part of these discussions, on 2010-03-02, Geoff Huston (msg06152
and http://www.potaroo.net/presentations/2010-02-01-bgp2009.pdf)
provided recent analysis of his ongoing measurements of the BGP
control plane.  Geoff's work in this field has been vital to our
understanding of scalable routing and this analysis is an important

In 2009 an attempt was made to list the constraints imposed on any
scalable routing solution by the need for widespread voluntary
adoption [http://www.firstpr.com.au/ip/ivip/RRG-2009/constraints/].
This was improved after some list discussions.  This list has not
received consensus support either, but no detailed critiques of it
have appeared.

This Recommendation is based on an understanding of the need for
enhancements to IPv4 and IPv6 for reasons summarised in the following

While some have argued that the IPv4 routing scalability problem does
not need to be fixed due to the imminent widespread adoption of IPv6
- in turn due to the looming address space shortage in IPv4 - a
larger body of opinion is that the IPv4 routing scaling problem is
important and more urgently in need of a solution than IPv6's.
Several people have expressed the view that the shortage of fresh
IPv4 address space is likely to drive a higher rate of growth in IPv4
DFZ prefixes, as space is more finely divided in order to maximise

No convincing arguments have been advanced for why IPv4 will not be
very widely used for the foreseeable future.  Currently advertised
space amounts to about 130 /8s, which is around 60% of the global
unicast space which could be advertised and used by hosts.

Significant adoption of IPv6 seems likely at some stage - such as due
to mass-adoption mobile devices being given IPv6 global unicast
space, rather than, or in addition to, IPv4 access behind NAT.

17.2.3 Portability, Multihoming and inbound Traffic Engineering (TE)

Many discussions of scalable routing identify the problem faced by a
PA-using end-user network when choosing another ISP: the need for
renumbering all hosts and routers in their network.  The severity of
this problem scales approximately with the size of the network and
the number of hosts it contains.  However, it is greatly compounded
by addresses for the network's hosts appearing in configuration
files, ACLs (Access Control Lists) and other places outside the
network itself.  As an example, a university's range of IP addresses
may appear in the ACLs of dozens or hundreds of academic journal
sites, with each such ACL needing to be updated if the university
needed to renumber its network

A commercial example of the difficulties caused by renumbering is an
end-user network which provide services for its customers, with those
customers' DNSes containing IP addresses of this network's hosts.
Renumbering would involve costly, error-prone and carefully timed
changes to the DNSes of potentially numerous other organisations
beyond the network itself.

IPv6's arrangement for automatic renumbering of networks and their
hosts are not an adequate solution for the "pain of renumbering"
problem.  The only solution is portability of the address space
between ISPs.  This ability to use one set of addresses via multiple
ISPs is also a key requirement for multihoming - unless all hosts and
their protocols are altered, as is the case with a CEE "Locator /
Identifier Separation" architecture.

Consequently we encapsulate the entire "renumbering" problem as the
need for "portability" - the only solution which meets the needs of
end-user networks.

There is universal agreement that the scalable routing problem can
only be solved by the scalable provision of at least three benefits
to a much larger number of end-user networks than are currently able
to access these benefits:  Portability, Multihoming - and in the case
of multihomed end-user networks: the potential for inbound TE.
Inbound TE involves the steering of traffic between two or more ISPs
for purposes such as load balancing, optimising costs, ensuring low
latency for latency sensitive traffic etc.

In brief, the two elements of the (non-mobile) routing scaling
problem are:

  1 - The burden on all DFZ routers and the DFZ control plane in
      general due to the increasing numbers of end-user networks
      advertising their PI prefixes - which is currently the only
      means by which they can achieve portability, multihoming and/or
      inbound traffic engineering (TE).

      This burden involves unfair distribution of costs - directly
      to all networks which run DFZ routers, and thereby to all
      Internet users, since this includes all ISPs.

      It also involves problems of technical capacity of DFZ routers
      to perform their task - particularly those with many
      neighbours, since the RIB burden scales approximately with the
      number of prefixes multiplied by the number of neighbours.

      This burden raises important concerns about the ability of the
      entire BGP-based DFZ control plane to respond rapidly and
      appropriately to outages.  The sheer number of prefixes
      affected by a single outage results in slower then optimal
      processing by some or many DFZ routers - which has the
      potential to lead to patterns of convergence which are even
      less optimal than those observed at present.

      While most focus is on the RIB burden, it is also important to
      limit the growth in the number of prefixes routers' FIBs must
      handle.  This should occur as a natural consequence of limiting
      or reversing the growth in the number of DFZ-advertised

  2 - The high cost and administrative barriers faced by end-user
      networks in achieving portability, multihoming and/or inbound
      TE.  The number of non-mobile end-user networks which require
      these benefits is probably of order 10^7 - indicating that
      only a tiny fraction of such networks are currently able to
      achieve these benefits using the only approach currently
      available: PI prefixes advertised in the DFZ.

Consequently, a good solution to the problem would enable many more
end-user networks to achieve portability, multihoming and inbound TE
with far less impact on the DFZ control plane.  Ideally, the new
arrangements would be attractive for current PI-using end-user
networks - so enabling some, many or perhaps all of them to adopt the
new scalable approach, and so no longer advertise each of their
prefixes in the DFZ.

17.2.3 - IPv4 Address Exhaustion

The best known problem the Internet faces is the exhaustion of fresh
supplies of IPv4 space.  Fortunately, we believe that without any
extra elaboration, CES architectures Ivip and LISP will both allow
significant improvement in the utilization efficiency of IPv4 space,
without excessively burdening the BGP control plane.  Improved
utilization efficiency is not a complete solution to the problem, but
it is vital that these improvements be possible in a scalable
fashion.  Otherwise there will be a massive increase in the number of
DFZ prefixes as IPv4 space is sliced more and more finely in order to
actively use more of the global unicast address space.

17.2.4 - Global Mobility

In some RRG discussions and proposals, mobility has been
characterized as something which is already catered for adequately by
existing Mobile IP (MIP) techniques - and which should not be the
concern of the interdomain routing system or any enhancements to it.

A contrary view is that MIP techniques are inadequate for the
challenges of mass-adoption Mobility, and that a new approach - TTR
Mobility - (Translating Tunnel Router Mobility -
http://www.firstpr.com.au/ip/ivip/TTR-Mobility.pdf) provides benefits
beyond those obtainable via current or likely future MIP techniques.

While Mobility is not discussed in the above-mentioned documents
concerning problems and goals, it does have a prominent place in the
RRG's Charter:

    At the moment, the Internet routing and addressing
    architecture is facing challenges in scalability,
    mobility, multi-homing, and inter-domain traffic
    engineering. Thus the RRG proposes to focus its
    effort on designing an alternate architecture to
    meet these challenges.

A looming problem is how to accommodate billions of mobile hand-held
devices with IPv4 or IPv6 capabilities, including with session
survival as the device connects to new access networks.  An upper
limit on the number of these devices is of order 10^10.

For these to be directly reachable by existing hosts, this involves
the device having at least one portable global unicast address and
being able to exercise the equivalent of multihoming on a dynamic,
second-to-second, basis - including the use of access networks with
which the owner of the mobile device may have no prior relationship
or knowledge.

Each such device would ideally have at least one global unicast
address which it retains no matter which access network(s) it is
connected to, which address(es) it is given on those networks,
whether or not those connections are behind one or more layers of
NAT, and whether or not their address is conventional or of the new
kind of "edge" address provided by CES architectures.

Conventional Mobile IP approaches appear to be inadequate to these
tasks, since they involve mobile and sometimes correspondent hosts in
new protocols and management exchanges - if path lengths are
generally to be optimal.  MIP also burdens the mobile host with
significant responsibilities when it changes its address - with
further problems if two communicating mobile hosts both change
addresses at about the same time.

We believe the TTR Mobility architecture is suitable for providing
mass-scale global mobility for both IPv4 and IPv6.  TTR Mobility is
an extension of the CES architecture, and we believe that
architectures such as Ivip or LISP will support TTR Mobility well -
without requiring any architectural complexity to do so.  Optimal TTR
Mobility support involves real-time mapping distribution - as should
be possible on a scalable basis with Ivip's Distributed Real Time
Mapping (DRTM) system [draft-whittle-ivip-drtm] - which may also be
applicable to LISP.

17.2.5 Security and robustness

The Internet faces other significant problems, including
vulnerabilities to Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks - and
general problems with the security of hosts against a variety of
forms of attack.

While we cannot foresee how the proposed CES architectures can help
significantly with these problems, we believe that it should be
possible to devise a CES-based solution which does not significantly
compromise the security, privacy or robustness of today's IPv4 or
IPv6 communications

17.3 - Categorizing the proposals

17.3.1 - Mapping only

We believe that the following proposals concern mapping systems only,
and so do not constitute complete scalable routing proposals:

   Compact routing in locator identifier mapping system
   Layered mapping system (LMS)
   2-phased mapping
   Enhanced Efficiency of Mapping Distribution Protocols in
   Map-and-Encap Schemes

17.3.2 - Neither CEE nor CES

Several other proposals do not appear to provide solutions which
adequately address the numbers of end-user networks which need
Portability, Multihoming and inbound TE - which is of order 10^7.
Nor do they adequately address the need for mass-adoption global
mobility.  The critiques for these proposals mention these shortcomings.

   Name overlay (NOL)
   Evolution - Aggregation with Increasing Scopes

17.3.3 - CEE and CES proposals

We find the remaining proposals, all of which - in principle at least
- may be capable of solving the routing scaling problem, to fall into
two categories:  Core-Edge Elimination (CEE) architectures and
Core-Edge Separation (CES) architectures - the defining aspects of
which are described in sections below.

The four CEE proposals are:

   ILNP - Identifier-Locator Network Protocol
   Name-Based Sockets

The four CES proposals are:


The widespread use of the terms Core-Edge Elimination and Core-Edge
Separation began with this paper:

  Towards a Future Internet Architecture: Arguments for Separating
  Edges from Transit Core
  Dan Jen, Lixia Zhang, Lan Wang, Beichuan Zhang

An attempt to trace the origins of these terms [msg05966] indicates
they were developed in July 2008.

The CEE/CES distinction has been controversial.  Firstly, some RRG
members stated that the distinction is unhelpful and/or does not
reflect architectural differences.  However, no detailed arguments
have been presented to support this view.

Another matter of discussion (msg06110) is whether the "separation"
of CES had a dual meaning - not just the separation of one scalable
"edge" subset of global unicast address space from the remaining
"core" addresses, but what might better be referred to as "isolation"
 of all hosts on "edge" addresses from being able to send packets to
"core" addresses.

This Recommendation is based on an understanding of the CEE/CES
distinction which is more fully discussed in (msg06110) and
(msg05865) and which can be summarised as follows.  These
interpretations involve core and edge addresses.  No scalable routing
architecture actually eliminates "edge" networks, nor separates
"edge" networks from "core" networks - since they are already separate.

   CEE   Core-Edge (address) Elimination:  A class of scalable
         routing architectures in which the Locator / Identity
         Separation naming model is introduced, replacing the
         current IPv4/v6 model in which the IP address plays both
         the Identifier and Locator roles.

         Hosts have portability of Identifiers and are able to do
         multihoming and inbound TE on IP addresses derived from
         two or more PA prefixes from two or more ISPs.  These
         addresses are conventional PA "core" addresses and each such
         PA prefixes for an end-user network is fully aggregated into
         a shorter prefix the ISP advertises.  Therefore, this use of
         address space is regarded as scalable.  (This doubling or
         more of each end-user network's address requirements is one
         of the reasons CEE architectures are impractical for IPv4.)

         Therefore there is no need for any "edge" addresses - the
         unscalable PI addresses which are currently the only way of
         achieving portability, multihoming and inbound TE.

         A fully adopted CEE architecture therefore eliminates the
         need for "edge" addresses, and so for the distinction
         between "core" and "edge" addresses.

         The full sense of "Elimination" in this term is "Elimination
         of the need to distinguish between core and edge addresses,
         since there is no longer a need for edge addresses."

   CES   Core-Edge (address) Separation: a subset of the global
         unicast address space is separated from the remaining
         "core" global unicast addresses and is supported by the
         CES system (ITRs, mapping system and ETRs) to be used as
         a new form of address space by which end-user networks
         can obtain the benefits of Portability, Multihoming and
         inbound TE in a scalable manner.  This space is used in a
         manner which involves far less impact on the DFZ control
         plane per end-user prefix than than current PI techniques.

         The full sense of "Separation" in this term is "Separation
         of the global unicast address space into a scalable 'edge'
         subset, with the remainder being 'core' addresses".  Since
         Portability, Multihoming and inbound TE can be provided
         with this new scalable "edge" space, there is no longer
         any need for the unscalable PI edge space.

17.4 - Core-Edge Elimination architectures

The four CEE architectures:

   ILNP - Identifier-Locator Network Protocol
   Name-Based Sockets

differ considerably in their principles of operation.  Some -
Name-Based Sockets and RANGI - require upgraded applications.  All
require upgraded IPv6 stacks.  None are practical for IPv4.  Some
require new network elements.  Some involve optional new network
element functions and optional upgraded applications.

All of them face extremely high barriers to adoption for the
following reasons.  Firstly, they are only applicable to IPv6 due to
their multihoming arrangements requiring at least double the amount
of global unicast address space each end-user network actually needs.
 Secondly, they all require host stack upgrades - and those which
require upgraded applications are at a further disadvantage.

Thirdly they all provide substantial benefits to adopters (benefits
of Portability, Multihoming and inbound TE for all, or almost all,
communications) only after all, or almost all, hosts in the IPv6
Internet have also been upgraded.

Finally, they all provide substantial routing scaling benefits -
provision of benefits to adoptors for all or almost all of their
communications and consequently the ability of PI-using networks to
relinquish their PI space - only after all, or almost all, hosts in
the IPv6 Internet have been upgraded.

There is also a problem in that CEE architectures provide no obvious
alternative to the functions currently performed by an ACL - such as
allowing access to an academic publisher's site from any host in a
university's prefix of IP addresses.  CEE architectures cannot
implement ACLs using the Locators in packets, since these are
inherently unstable.  For instance, the packets sent by a host in a
multihomed site which uses inbound TE may arrive with Locators of
different ISPs, even within the one session, in order to cause the
return packets to be sent through one ISP or another.  Another ISP,
with consequent need for different Locators, could be added at any
time.  CEE architectures may not be able to have routers filter
packets on any Identifier value found in the source fields of the the
packet, since these are not necessarily numeric - or if numeric, may
not be organised in a stable hierarchical fashion suitable for the
simple masking operations of an ACL.

These problems rule CEE architectures out of consideration for IPv4
but do not entirely rule out their adoption over a long period of
time for IPv6.

At their currently early stage of development, none of the four CEE
proposals appear to be applicable to IPv6's ULA.  Also, these
proposals generally involve complex interworking arrangements with
non-upgraded hosts.

In order to deliver full benefits to adoptors, and full routing
scaling benefits, CEE proposals all require that every host's stack
(with non-upgraded applications) - or every host's stack and
applications - adopt a new naming model which has long been regarded
as architecturally superior to the one used today in IPv4 and IPv6:
Locator / Identifier Separation.

Instead of today's model, in which the IP address performs both
Identifier and Locator roles, Loc/ID Separation involves two separate
objects for these roles, in two separate namespaces.  The exact
naming models of these proposals vary, but they all have this in common.

There are two significant benefits of a CEE architecture over a CES
architecture.  Firstly, CEE architectures are generally able to work
without encapsulation while CES architectures generally require
encapsulating traffic packets to tunnel them towards the destination
network - with the the Path MTU Discovery problems which result from

Secondly, CEE architectures are argued to involve either no extra
complexity in the routing system - or at least less complexity than
with a CES architecture.

However, Loc/ID Separation and therefore all CEE architectures
involve a fundamental problem which is the reason we believe no such
architecture can be the basis of the most desirable future
architectural enhancement to either IPv4 or IPv6: that the extra
routing and addressing burdens placed on hosts cannot be justified by
any such advantage CEE architectures have over CES architectures.

To restate this in a different form, we believe that the additional
routing system complexity inherent in CES architectures is a
worthwhile price to pay in order to continue supporting the current
two-level naming structure.  Despite being arguably architecturally
inelegant, the current two-level naming system is in practice faster
and more efficient, and much less burdensome for all hosts, than the
Loc/ID Separation alternative.

In the current naming model, when a host A sends a packet with
destination address X, the routing system will either drop the packet
or deliver it to the host whose IP address is X.  Except in the case
of anycast, the address X uniquely identifies a particular
destination host.  So host A's act of placing IP address X into the
destination field of a packet and sending it to the routing system
typically achieves the most obvious goal of having the packet
delivered to the host which is identified by its IP address X - and
always achieves an equally important second goal: that the packet
will not be delivered to any other host than the one with IP address X.

To achieve the same assurances with Loc/ID separation requires that
before the packet is sent, the sending host looks up the Identifier
of the destination host in the ID->Loc mapping system (if it has not
already cached the results of a previous lookup) and wait for a map
reply, which contains the one or more Locators which are currently
potentially valid for the destination host.

With today's naming model, a typical two-way initial packet exchange
involves host A obtaining an IP address for host B, perhaps via a DNS
lookup; host A sending a packet with this address in the destination
field; and host B using the address in the source field of this
packet for the destination field of the reply packet - sending the
packet back to A, without any kind of lookup or delay.  While B
cannot be sure the first packet was sent by A, the routing system
ensures that its reply can only go back to host A.

With Loc/ID separation, the DNS lookup or some other mechanism
provides host A with an Identifier for host B.  A then looks up this
Identifier in the ID->Loc mapping system and so gains a Locator,
which is needed for the address field of the packet.  When B receives
the packet, then it typically needs to look up A's Identifier in the
mapping system in order to find a currently valid Locator to place in
the destination field of the reply packet.  This is required in any
scenario where B must know the identity of the host to which it is
replying.  This is not always the case, but it is frequently the case
 - and for any CEE architecture involving unmodified IPv6
applications, it must be the case, since the application may be
assuming that its reply packet can only be received by the host it
understands is identified by the IPv6 address it places in the
destination field of the packet it hands to the stack for transmission.

All CEE proposals involve a global ID->Loc mapping system - a
query-based system which is global in size and has one or a small
number of authoritative servers for each query.  There is typically
little or no scope for caching these replies at any intermediate
query servers, since it is important that the replies must contain
fresh information and typically have short caching times at the
querier.  The global scale of these systems, as with DNS (other than
with multiple anycast servers), involve inherently long potential
delays and inherently greater risks of packet loss.

None of these CEE proposals involve a global ID->Loc mapping system
with local or nearby full-database query servers which could resolve
these queries highly reliably and with delays which are always short
enough to be insignificant to the applications.

Some CEE proposals involve the initial DNS lookup providing Locators
as well as Identifiers.  However, these approaches have not yet been
shown to support the resolution of a FQDN into multiple Identifiers,
each with their own set of Locators.  Nor can DNS be assumed to be
the only frequently used approach to the commencement of a new
communication session.

The typically extra delays inherent in these ID->Loc lookups
constitute a serious enough burden on all communications for us to
argue that it would be better to implement the extra routing system
complexities inherent in CES (with a suitably fast mapping system) in
order to avoid these delays.

Furthermore, all CEE architectures involve extra packets from and to
the hosts due to these lookups, and in some cases in the form of
extra host-to-host communications.  Some CEE architectures involve
longer packets being sent between the hosts, with the inclusion of
Identifiers in some or all packets.  For instance, Name Based Sockets
involves sending potentially long FQDNs as Identifiers in initial
packets sent between the hosts and RANGI involves a 36 byte
Destination Options Header on all packets.

GLI-Split and ILNP do not involve longer packets being sent between
hosts.  However GLI-Split involves significant extra functionality in
routers, and ILNP has optional address rewriting by end-user network
border routers.

CEE architectures involve hosts in sending map request packets and
waiting for the corresponding replies.  Hosts must store more state
than at present and must send and receive more bytes in order to
achieve initial and sometimes continuing communications.  When there
is a multihoming link failure, or a mobility change in Locator, each
individual host is required to securely notify all its correspondent
hosts of the changed circumstances.  There are scaling problems in
doing if there are a large number of correspondent hosts.

This Recommendation is based on the position that these burdens on
all hosts - extra traffic, state and CPU resources - is undesirable
for all hosts and cannot be justified by the avoidance of the
additional routing system complexity which CES architectures entail.

In particular, we argue that the imposition of mapping query and
response packets on mobile hosts is even more unacceptable than for
hosts with fast, inexpensive, reliable connections.   In the
foreseeable future, the majority of hosts will probably be connected
via 3G wireless links, which are frequently suffer from high latency
and limited bandwidths.  The inherent unreliability of packet
transmission in wide area radio networks is compounded by the
likelihood that the link itself will be congested with application
traffic - further increasing the risk that map request and reply
packets will be dropped.

There is a counter argument regarding a CES architecture also needing
mapping lookups concerning both hosts in an initial two-packet
exchange.  There is some validity to this, but there are three
important distinctions which mean the concerns remain.

Firstly, in a CEE architecture, all Internet hosts must adopt the new
system before there are significant benefits to adoptors or to
scalable routing.  This means all host-to-host communications use
Locator / Identifier Separation and so, typically, require ID->Loc
lookups at both ends.  With CES, only a subset of hosts adopt the new
scalable "edge" space.  All hosts run by ISPs, and all end-user hosts
on PA addresses, will continue to use "core" addresses - which
require no lookups.  It is reasonable to expect the great majority of
domestic Internet services, and many business services, to remain on
PA space - since they do not want or need Portability, Multihoming or
inbound TE.  Packets sent to the numerous hosts on these PA end-user
networks do not require any lookups.

Secondly, even if both hosts in a CES system are on "edge" space,
there are two ways in which the nature of these "edge" to "core"
mapping lookups which differs from those in a CES architecture.  The
CES devices doing the lookups are ITRs (Ingress Tunnel Routers) which
are typically well connected.  ITRs are not normally linked to the
rest of the Net via slow, potentially unreliable links such as those
most mobile devices will be relying upon.  So this reduces the direct
mapping lookup delays and further delays due to packet loss.  Another
benefit of CES is that the ITRs typically serve the needs of multiple
sending hosts - and so are more likely to have the required mapping
already cached - so avoiding any lookup or delay.

Thirdly, in a CES architecture, a mapping reply may, and often will,
return a range of "edge" addresses to which the same mapping applies.
 So a single enquiry about one address may return information which
removes the need to send a query about another address within this
range.  CEE Identifier -> Locator mapping has no such mechanism, so
every Identifier needs a separate lookup.

Also, in the DRTM approach to real-time mapping, long caching times
can be used, so reducing the need for repetitive lookups - since DRTM
supports a later Cache Update being sent to the querier, as soon as
the responding server learns of a change to mapping which was
previously sent in a mapping reply.  No CEE proposal provides such a
facility - so in order for sending hosts to have up-to-date Locator
information, caching times must be short, which frequently
necessitates repeated requests.  Also, since no CEE mapping systems
utilize "local" or "nearby" query servers, the time delays and the
total effort in handling these query and response packets is greater
than with a CES system which uses longer caching times and nearby
authoritative query servers.

These problems of host burdens - extra delays, extra traffic and
state etc. - are inherent in all CEE architectures.  Because we
believe the routing system should be constructed to serve the
reasonable needs of hosts, and because we believe that a CES
enhancement is capable of doing so for scalable routing and global
mobility, we believe that no CEE architecture - any architecture
which involves Locator / Identifier Separation - could be the best
approach to upgrading Internet architecture.

If CEE architectures were inherently easier to have widely adopted
than CES architectures, a difficult decision would have to be made -
pitting ease of adoption against long-term benefits.  However since
all CEE architectures return substantial benefits to adopters and to
scalable routing only after nearly universal adoption, and since CES
architectures provide immediate, full, benefits to adoptors and
continual scalability benefits in proportion to adoption, there is no
obvious reason to contemplate why CEE architectures should be adopted
in preference to a good CES architecture.

17.5 - Core-Edge Separation architectures

CES architectures are applicable to both IPv4 and IPv6 and require no
alterations to host stacks or applications.

Unlike CEE architectures, a well implemented CES architecture is
capable of supporting all an adopting network's traffic for
Portability, Multihoming and inbound TE.  This includes packets sent
by hosts without any upgrades from networks without any upgrades.
This results in immediate full benefits to all adopters, irrespective
of how many other networks adopt the CES architecture.

While a CEE architecture only provides substantial routing scaling
benefits once all, or almost all, hosts adopt the new system, CES
architectures provide routing scaling benefits in direct proportion
to their level of adoption.

When an end-user network which currently has no PI prefixes adopts a
well implemented CES architecture, it gains the benefits of
Portability, Multihoming and inbound TE for the first time.

Alternatively, if the adopting network already has PI space, it
retains these benefits while reducing the burden on the DFZ control
plane.  The network may convert its existing PI prefix to "edge"
space, and then divide it freely into potentially numerous separately
mapped portions of "edge" space, each which can be used at an ETR at
any ISP.  Meanwhile, the single original, short, prefix is all that
is advertised in the DFZ.  The network may also relinquish some of
its PI space, returning the no-longer needed portion to the RIR (and
so helping reduce the impact of the IPv4 address shortage) while
retaining a longer prefix as edge space, as just described.  This is
on the frequently realistic assumption that its sites can operate
with fewer than the 256 IPv4 addresses which is the current minimum
number which can be used with conventional PI approaches.
Alternatively, the network may relinquish all its PI space, removing
one or more prefixes from the DFZ, and lease "edge space from another
company, who advertise one or more shorter prefixes in the DFZ, with
each such prefix providing "edge" space for thousands or tens of
thousands of end-user networks.

Another primary benefit of CES over CEE architectures is that they
maintain the current two-level naming model of IPv4 and IPv6.  As
discussed in the previous section, this model results in faster
communications establishment and less load on all hosts than with the
CEE alternative of "Locator / Identifier Separation".

Of the four CES proposals, two can be discounted from being the best
choice for IETF development in the foreseeable future.

TIDR must be discounted because it does not really solve the key
problem of scalable routing - removing the burden of more numerous
end-user prefixes from the BGP control plane.  This is because TIDR's
equivalent of mapping information is carried by DFZ routers - in a
form closely resembling the way PI prefixes are advertised.  Suitably
modified DFZ routers are required to propagate this information, and
the FIBs of these DFZ routers do not need entries for each individual
end-user "edge" prefix.  However the burden on the DFZ's BGP control
plane is hardly lessened by TIDR.

IRON-RANGER is an innovative CES architecture which at present has
unresolved questions surrounding the scalability and security by
which millions of ETR-like routers advertise the "edge" prefixes they
are currently handling to one or potentially many "Virtual Prefix"
routers, which could be located anywhere on the Net.  Since this
process involves repeated and continual communications going out from
the ETR-like routers to these VP routers, and since the arrangements
by which this is to be achieved are currently not well described, it
is not clear that this process can scale well or be performed
securely enough to result in a system which would be competitive with
LISP or Ivip.  Two other concerns about IRON-RANGER are that it does
not seem to support TTR Mobility, or provide full support for packets
sent from non-upgraded networks.  (See msg06214 for further discussion.)

LISP - and in particular LISP-ALT - is the best known and most
developed CES architecture, with a small test network, an IETF WG and
several teams implementing code which is intended to interwork
smoothly.   However despite more than two years of work, the LISP-ALT
mapping system involves unresolved questions about scaling,
potentially long delays and its ability to be structured to avoid
single points of failure and unacceptable concentrations of traffic.
 Other concerns about LISP include the complexity of its ITRs and
ETRs, difficulties with the ITR being able to reliably ascertain the
reachability of the destination network through an ETR and
difficulties having ETRs enforce any ISP border router filtering
based on the source address of packets arriving from the DFZ.

LISP lacks a mapping system which can provide its ITRs with the
nearly instant responses which are required for a CES system not to
impose significant delays on the establishment of initial
communications.  Since we can only have a scalable system widely
enough adopted to solve the problem via purely voluntary adoption,
the solution must be perceived as attractive for end-user networks of
all sizes if it is to be successful.  Any significant inherent
delays, even if only on a fraction of initial communications, would
put the system at risk of not being attractive enough to larger
networks, which can get PI space, to be adopted widely enough to
substantially solve the routing scaling problem.

The DRTM (Distributed Real Time Mapping) system was designed for
Ivip, and is intended to be applicable to LISP - but there is no
assurance that it would be adopted in favour of ALT or any other
mapping systems the LISP developers are currently working on.

LISP can support TTR Mobility.  However, its currently non-real-time
mapping system would mean that mobile node tunnels to TTRs would need
to be retained longer than with a CES architecture such as Ivip which
had a real-time mapping system.

Since its inception in mid-2007, Ivip has had a real-time mapping
system.  Until February 2010, this involved a somewhat decentralised,
but still coordinated, system of "Replicator" servers which fanned
mapping updates in real time to full-database "local" query servers
in ISPs which choose to install ITRs.  While this would still be
possible, the new  arrangement for Ivip is to adopt DRTM, in which
there is no need for any server to be full-database for the entire
set of "edge" devices, and in which ISPs and end-user networks with
ITRs have their ITRs gain mapping from one or more purely caching Map
Resolvers they install in their networks.  Each Resolving Query
Server (QSR) queries typically "nearby" Authoritative Query Servers
(QSAs) which carry the real-time updated full mapping databases for
the subset of the "Mapped Address Block" (MAB) prefixes which they serve.

The MABOCs (MAB Operating Companies) which lease space in their MABs
to thousands or millions of end-user networks typically need to
establish a number of DITR (Default ITRs in the DFZ) sites all over
the Net in order to handle packets sent by hosts in networks without
ITRs.  These sites also host the authoritative QSAs which QSRs in ISP
and end-user networks query.

While these DITR-site QSAs may as an option push streams of mapping
updates to QSRs which would then maintain full mapping databases for
some or all MABs, this is no longer a requirement of Ivip - and it
appears that this will not be needed for a full-scale deployment,
including for mass-adoption mobility.

DRTM provides end-user networks with real-time control (total latency
of two seconds or less) of the tunneling behavior of all ITRs in the
world which are handling packets addressed to their "edge" address
space.  Ivip requires end-user networks to be responsible for
detecting reachability problems in their multihoming arrangements and
for making the necessary mapping change decisions.  For conventional
multihoming, most end-user networks would contract a specialised
company to do this monitoring and to control their mapping.  This can
be combined with real-time control of inbound TE according to
priorities sent from the end-user network to the external
organisation which it has appointed to control its mapping.  Inbound
TE commands would be used by this organisation to control mapping as
long as the network was reachable via all ETRs.  When one or more
ETRs becomes unusable, multihoming service restoration would be more
important and the mapping would be changed to ensure full
connectivity, with inbound TE as a second priority.

To date, Ivip is the only CES architecture which modularly
externalises the control of mapping from the CES system itself.  This
enables end-user networks to test reachability and control their
mapping as they choose.  This also removes the need for ITRs to make
any decisions - and so enables the mapping to be greatly simplified:
to a single ETR address.

Ivip and LISP are the two proposals which appear to have the
potential to substantially solve the basic routing scaling problem
for both IPv4 and IPv6.  Both are suitable for supporting the TTR
Mobility architecture.   Real-time, externalised, control of ITR
tunneling behaviour is central to the benefits and simplifications
which are feature of Ivip.  In the next section we list the
individual architectural elements which we believe should be
incorporated in a future IETF-developed CES architecture.

17.6 - Desirable CES principles for IETF development

17.6.1 - Synergies between these elements

A fuller account of these architectural principles is


The Ivip term "Scalable PI" (SPI) space is used below to denote that
subset of the global unicast address space which is used for scalable
provision to end-user networks of Portability, Multihoming and
inbound TE.  TTR Mobility also provides SPI space to Mobile Nodes
(MNs).  In Ivip, a continuous range of SPI space with a single
mapping is known as a "micronet".  This is defined by an integer
starting point and an integer length - it need not be a prefix or
have binary boundaries.

17.6.2 - Real time control of ITRs by end-user networks or their

When the end-user networks can directly control the way ITRs tunnel
packets addressed to the their SPI space sites - and when they can
delegate this control to other organisations - a number of benefits
are achieved.

The mapping can be simple - a single ETR address.  ITRs need make no
decisions between multiple ETR addresses, or do any tests of
reachability of destination networks through ETRs.

The ITR to QSR (Resolving Query Server) protocol (perhaps via one or
more QSC caching query servers) and the QSR to "nearby" QSA protocols
may be similar or identical and should both support Cache Updates
being sent after the initial Map Reply, secured by the nonce in the
original Map Request query.  This is so mapping for a micronet which
is cached in a QSR, QSC or ITR will be updated within a fraction of a
second of the real-time mapping change arriving at the authoritative
QSA query server at the DITR-site.

This needs to be supplemented by the querier periodically checking
the responder is still alive and has not been rebooted - and
invalidating any cached mapping from that responder if it is
unreachable or has been rebooted.  The protocol also enables QSR to
find the one, two or more generally "nearest" QSAs which are
authoritative for each MAB.

The protocol will include mechanisms for these query servers to
return in their Map Reply and probably Cache Update messages some
information which may direct or encourage Map Resolvers to use
another QSA instead - as a method of dynamically load balancing
the queries between multiple QSAs.

With real-time mapping changes to the QSAs driving Cache Updates
going to the ITRs which need them, the CES system can be used more
flexibly than if ITRs could only be given fresh mapping on a
non-real-time basis - and so had to test reachability and choose
between ETR addresses on their own.

Real-time mapping enables TTR Mobility to be somewhat simpler.
Mapping changes are not frequently required in TTR Mobility - they
are only typically desirable if the MN moves more than 1000 km or so,
and are not required at all due the MN gaining a new address or
access network.  Real-time control enables MNs to terminate their
tunnels to the previously used TTR within a few seconds rather than
retain it for a longer time, as would be required if ITRs could only
receive mapping information on a non-real-time basis.

17.6.3 - Mapping resolution

The resolution of the mapping system, and therefore the ability to
specify micronets (contiguous ranges of SPI space with a single
mapping) should be single IPv4 addresses and for IPv6, /64 prefixes.

A /64 should be sufficient as a minimal address allocation for any MN
or site, and there is no reason to require ITR's FIBs to work with
more than the 64 most significant address bits.

Integer ranges of these units enable more flexible utilization than
reliance on traditional binary-boundary prefixes.  This would
frequently result in better space utilization and a reduction in the
number of micronets in many circumstances.  For instance, if
micronets were instead specified purely as prefixes, and an end-user
network had 16 IPv4 addresses initially in a single micronet, this
could be covered by a single prefix-based micronet.  If they wanted
to use two of these addresses in a single micronet, this would
require a second micronet for the two addresses, and the remaining 14
addresses being covered by micronets of 8, 4 and 2 addresses each - a
total of 4 micronets.  With arbitrary integer lengths, there would
only be two micronets - one of 2 IPv4 addresses and the other of 14.

17.6.4 - Flexibility of ITR and ETR placement

The CES architecture should allow ITRs should be placed flexibly in
ISP and end-user networks, including on SPI addresses.  ITR functions
in hosts should be an option - again for hosts on ordinary "core"
addresses and on SPI "edge" addresses.  ITR functions in hosts behind
NAT should be considered as an option.

ETRs should not be assumed to be run by ISPs or by end-user networks
- either arrangement should be possible.  ETRs will always be on
"core" addresses - and so will never be behind NAT or another ETR.

With proper flexibility, no matter whether an ETR is run by an ISP or
the SPI-using end-user network, the flow of packets from other parts
of an ISP network to this end-user network will be via a nearby ITR
(including perhaps a DITR outside the ISP) and then to the ETR.  This
means that ISP networks need not keep the SPI space in their their
internal routing systems.

For non-mobile end-user networks, which may run their own ETRs on the
PA space they already obtain as part of their Internet service, the
only step their ISP needs to take in order to allow them to use SPI
space is to accept outgoing packets from these networks, to be
forwarded onwards, including to the rest of the Internet, when the
source address of these packets is from the "edge" (SPI) subset of
the global unicast address range.  There are no such requirements of
an ISP or access network to be used by a Mobile Node using TTR
Mobility, since the MN tunnels to its one or more typically nearby
TTRs, and sends all outgoing packets to the TTRs, rather than relying
on its access network to forward these SPI source address outgoing

17.6.5 - No requirement for new host functionality

While ITR functions in hosts should be an option, and while MNs will
require tunneling and other software to work with TTR Mobility, no
other additional functions should be expected of hosts.

17.6.6 - Modified Header Forwarding

Alternatives to encapsulation-based tunneling have been proposed for
IPv4 and IPv6:

   1  ETR Address Forwarding (EAF) - for IPv4.

   2. Prefix Label Forwarding (PLF) - for IPv6.

These techniques avoid the overheads and PMTUD problems inherent in
encapsulation-based tunneling.

Both these require upgrades to all DFZ and some other routers.  In
the long-term, this can probably be achieved with little cost and no
disruption.  So the CES architecture should be designed to transition
to these in the future whenever these upgrades can be complete.  (The
mechanisms for this transition are TBD.)

Depending on the time-frame of adoption, it may not be out of the
question to have all routers updated appropriately before
introduction - and thereby avoid transition and the need to build
PMTUD management functions into all ITRs and ETRs.

17.6.7 - PMTUD management

Some difficult problems need to be solved for Path MTU Discovery when
encapsulated tunneling is used, particularly to cope with DF=0 IPv4
packets and to allow the system to take advantage of jumboframe paths
 across the DFZ as they become available.  Ivip's IPTM protocol for
doing this is more developed than LISP's.   PMTUD problems of CES
architectures are discussed in a February 2010 RRG thread [msg05910].

17.6.8 - IP-in-IP encapsulation for traffic packets

With real-time mapping, ITRs no longer need to communicate with ETRs
regarding reachability.  ITR to ETR communications are limited to the
new protocols required for handling PMTUD.  In this case, there may
be no need for a UDP and then another header before the traffic
packet - so basic IP-in-IP encapsulation may be employed to minimise
encapsulation overhead.  There may be an argument for using UDP
encapsulation if this is found to be necessary for ITR to ETR
tunneling to be compatible with ECMP/LAG.

17.6.9 - ETR support for ISP border router source address filtering

Some ISPs use their BRs to drop packets arriving from the DFZ if
their source address matches that of any prefix the ISP advertises -
its own prefixes or those of any PI using customers.

The only inexpensive, configuration-free, approach to having ETRs
enforce on inner packets any source address filtering imposed by the
ISP on packets arriving from the DFZ appears to be to have ITRs
tunnel packets with the outer source address being that of the
sending host - and then for ETRs to drop inner packets whose inner
source address does not match the outer header's source address.
This has implications for PMTUD management, and is part of Ivip's
IPTM protocol.

LISP was designed from the outset to have the outer header's source
address being that of the ITR.  So the only way a LISP ETR could
support this ISP BR source address filtering is to implement it
directly on the source address of the decapsulated (inner) packet.
This would be inordinately expensive for large numbers of protected
prefixes, and is incompatible with the principle that a packet
originating inside the ISP's network, including from one of its
customer networks, should be able to be encapsulated by an ITR in
this ISP's network and be tunneled to the ETR.  To do so would cause
the ETR filtering mechanism to drop the packet, unless the mechanism
was elaborated with tests to see whether the packet was encapsulated
by an ITR inside the ISP network or outside.  This is in fact
impossible to ascertain - so the only way of pursuing this approach,
with LISP's current arrangement of outer header source address being
that of the ITR, would be to require all the ISPs customers using
"edge" (EID) space to have packets forwarded to them from the just
described "internal" sources, by the ISP's own internal routing
system, rather than by letting them be handled by ITRs.  This appears
to involve prohibitive constraints, such as forcing the internal
routing system to have routes for every EID prefix used by any
network which uses ETRs inside this ISP.  This set of EID prefixes
could change rapidly, and there are scaling and security challenges
in end-user networks communicating their changing EID space usage to
their one, two or more ISPs.  This approach of avoiding ITRs for
packets sent from inside the ISP network would be at odds with the
need for portability and multihoming service restoration, as well as
being at odds with the ability of LISP ITRs to control inbound TE.
These need to be controlled by the LISP ITRs alone.  So it appears
that the only way of ETRs supporting ISP BR filtering is for ITRs to
tunnel their packets as Ivip ITRs do - with the outer source address
being that of the sending host.

17.6.10 - Minimise typical mapping delays by use of nearby query servers

While "local" full database query servers in ISPs can reliably and
quickly return mapping replies, and so reduce the initial packet
delay problem to tens of milliseconds - long enough for ITRs to
buffer traffic packets while awaiting the map reply - these local
full database query servers and the continual stream of real-time
mapping information they require has raised objections.

With DRTM, these arrangements are no longer necessary.  DRTM uses
"nearby" authoritative QSA query servers which are full-database for
a subset of the MABs in the entire system - where "nearby" means
within 5000km (25ms in fibre) or so.

MABOCs will need to reach out with widely distributed DITR-sites and
will provide authoritative query servers at these sites.  Each MABOC
- or at least each company which runs the DITR sites for one or more
MABOCs - will therefore provide multiple QSAs for all MABs served by
these DITR sites.  With dynamic load balancing between these QSAs,
this arrangement can be expected to scale well to the largest
imaginable deployments.

The question of how these QSAs reliably and securely gain their
real-time mapping updates can be solved by the MABOCs or the
companies which run the DITR sites.  Private network links and
proprietary protocols can be considered, since this real-time mapping
distribution takes place entirely within one organisation, or within
the one one organisation but is driven from data supplied by one or
more trusted and closely related MABOC organisations.   There are no
obvious reasons why this cannot be done - and the concerns which
applied to Ivip's previous global "Replicator" system do not apply to
these DRTM arrangements.

This approach, which is part of DRTM, does not absolutely ensure an
ISP's Map Resolver will find the nearest authoritative query server
for a given MAB is "nearby" - such as less than 5000km distant, and
ideally closer in densely populated regions such as Europe, North
America and much of Asia.  However, in general this will be the
expected result, since MABOCs will be motivated to establish multiple
widespread sites to handle these queries and to perform DITR
operations in order to handle traffic addressed to the SPI addresses
of their end-user customers.