Re: [TLS] [Last-Call] Last Call: <draft-ietf-tls-oldversions-deprecate-09.txt> (Deprecating TLSv1.0 and TLSv1.1) to Best Current Practice

Keith Moore <moore@network-heretics.com> Sat, 28 November 2020 03:39 UTC

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To: Eric Rescorla <ekr@rtfm.com>
Cc: last-call@ietf.org, draft-ietf-tls-oldversions-deprecate@ietf.org, tls-chairs <tls-chairs@ietf.org>, tls@ietf.org
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From: Keith Moore <moore@network-heretics.com>
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Date: Fri, 27 Nov 2020 22:39:49 -0500
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Subject: Re: [TLS] [Last-Call] Last Call: <draft-ietf-tls-oldversions-deprecate-09.txt> (Deprecating TLSv1.0 and TLSv1.1) to Best Current Practice
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On 11/27/20 9:53 PM, Eric Rescorla wrote:

> Keith,
>
> Thanks for your note. Most of the general points you raise here were 
> discussed
> when the TLS WG decided to move forward with this draft [0], though
> perhaps some of that is not reflected in the text. Of course that
> doesn't make this points invalid, so I'll try to summarize my
> view of the rationale here.
>
> Your primary objection seems to be this has the effect of creating
> interop problems for older implementations that are unable to
> upgrade. This is of course true, however I think there are a number of
> factors that outweight that.
>
> First, while certainly is problematic that people who have
> un-upgraded endpoints will find they cannot connect to modern endpoints,
> we have to ask what is best for the ecosystem as a whole, and IMO what
> is best for that ecosystem is to upgrade to modern protocols.

If you're going to try to state what's best for the ecosystem as a 
whole, you need to understand that "the ecosystem" (or at least, the set 
of hosts and protocols using TLS) is a lot more diverse than things that 
are connected to the Internet most of the time, well-supported, and 
easily upgraded.   The idea that everybody should be constantly upgraded 
has not been shown to be workable, and there are reasons to believe that 
it is not workable.

When you give advice that is unworkable because it is based on dubious 
assumptions, you might not only cause interoperability failures, you 
might end up degrading security in very important cases.

> This
> would be true in any case, but is doubly true in the case of COMSEC
> protocols: What we want is to be able to guarantee a certain mimimal
> level of security if you're using TLS, but having weaker versions in
> play makes that hard, and not just for the un-upgraded people because
> we need to worry about downgrade attacks.

This sort of sounds like a marketing argument.   Yes, in some sense we'd 
like for "TLS" to mean "you're secure, you don't have to think about it" 
but more realistically TLS 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 each provide different 
countermeasures against attack (and in some cases, different drawbacks, 
like TLS 1.3 + ESNI being blocked) and you probably do need to be aware 
of those differences.

> While we have made efforts
> to protect against downgrade, the number of separate interacting
> versions makes this very difficult to analyze and ensure, and so the
> fewer versions in play the easier this is. Asking everyone else to
> bear these costs in terms of risk, management, complexity, etc. so
> that a few people don't have to upgrade seems like the wrong tradeoff.
I don't think it's a matter of "asking everyone else to bear these 
costs".  I think TLS < 1.2 should be disabled in the vast majority of 
clients, and in many (probably not all) public facing servers, but some 
users and operators will need to have workarounds to deal with 
implementations for which near-term upgrades (say, for the next 5-10 
years) are infeasible.
>
> Second, it's not clear to me that we're doing the people who have
> un-upgraded endpoints any favors by continuing to allow old versions
> of TLS. As a practical matter any piece of software which is so old
> that it does not support TLS 1.2 quite likely has a number of security
> defects (whether in the TLS stack or elsewhere) that make it quite
> hazardous to connect to any network which might have attackers on it,
> which, as RFC 3552 reminds us, is any network. Obviously, people have
> to set their own risk level, but that doesn't mean that we have to
> endorse everything they want to do.

Yes, but you might actually increase the vulnerability by insisting that 
they not use the only TLS versions that are available to them.

There's a lot of Bad Ideas floating around about what makes things 
secure, and a lot of Bad Security Policy that derives from those Bad 
Ideas.   But practically speaking, you can't change those Bad Ideas and 
Bad Policies overnight without likely making them much worse.   People 
have to actually understand what they're doing first, and that takes 
time.  And there are a lot of things that have to get fixed besides just 
the TLS versions to make some of these environments more secure.   Lots 
of people having to make security-related decisions simply haven't 
managed to deal with the complexity of the tradeoffs, so it's really 
common to hear handwaving arguments of the form "the only threat we need 
to consider is X, and Y will deal with that threat".   And of course 
that's not anywhere nearly true, and Y is woefully insufficient. None of 
which is a surprise to you, I'm sure.

Personally I often ask myself "what does it take to get devices in the 
field regularly upgraded?"   And it's not a simple answer. First thing 
that's needed is an ongoing revenue stream to provide those upgrades in 
the first place, and there's a huge amount of intertia/mindshare to be 
overcome just for that.   Second thing is you have to keep device vendor 
corporate overlords from repurposing that money, or by sabotaging their 
products in various ways, say by firing all of their domestic software 
engineers and outsourcing that work to contractors in another country 
where the level of security expertise is even lower and there's no 
institutional memory that keeps track of how things need to work.    
Then you have to convince customers not only that regular updates are a 
good idea, just like preventative maintenance (when many of them have 
very good reasons for not doing anything that could disrupt their 
operations), but also have to arrange for ways for those upgrades to be 
convenient and explicitly managed in a way that works consistently (or 
reasonably so) across all of their vulnerable devices.   (and no, 
they're not going to let those devices talk to anything on the public 
Internet, and would have quite an uphill battle arranging for VPNs to 
hardware vendors). And there's still the problem of isolated sites that 
are disconnected from the Internet.  (which of course doesn't make them 
safe, we know how Stuxnet worked, but it probably does make them safer 
than any sort of other near-term arrangement that is likely to happen)

I've tried to fight these battles many times and always lost. The more 
pragmatic thing to do is inform operators of the risks and let them 
figure out how to manage them, not insist that everyone follow the same 
policy.

>
> Finally, as is often said, we're not the protocol police, so we can't
> make anyone turn off TLS < 1.2. However, we need to make the best
> recommendation we can, and that recommendation is that people should
> not use versions prior to TLS 1.2.

Ok, but the draft says MUST NOT.

> If people choose not to comply,
> that's of course their right. We were certainly aware at the time
> this document was proposed that some people would take longer than
> others to comply, but the purpose was to move the ecosystem in the
> right direction, which is to say TLS >= 1.2. I believe that a MUST
> is more effective than a SHOULD here.
>
> -Ekr
>
> P.S. A few specific notes about your technical points here:
>
> > But some of those embedded devices do support TLS, even if it's old
> > TLS (likely with self-signed certs... TLS really wasn't designed to
> > work with embedded systems that don't have DNS names.)
>
> This is not correct. TLS takes no position at all on how servers
> are authenticated. It merely assumes that there is some way to
> validate the certificate and outsources the details to application
> bindings. For instance, you could have an IP address cert.

That's technically correct of course, but I think you know what I 
mean.   Without a reliable way of knowing that the server's certificate 
is signed by a trusted party, the connection is vulnerable to an MITM 
attack.   And the only widely implemented reliable way of doing that is 
to use well-known and widely trusted CAs.   Yes, some implementations 
run their own CAs and issue their own server certs and install their own 
root/secondary certs in clients, and they can make the subjects of those 
certs IP addresses or pretty much anything they want.    I've done that 
myself.   But I've never actually seen a single industrial facility do 
that, or express interest in doing that, no matter how many other 
security measures they employed.

>
> > For newer interactive clients I believe the appropriate action when
> > talking to a server that doesn't support TLS >= 1.2 is to (a) warn
> > the user, and (b) treat the connection as if it were insecure.  (so
> > no "lock" icon, for example, and the usual warnings about submitting
> > information over an insecure channel.)
>
> I'm not sure what clients you're talking about, but for the clients
> I am aware of, this would be somewhere between a broken experience
> and an anti-pattern. For example, in Web clients, because the origin
> includes the scheme, treating https:// URIs as http:// URIs will have
> all sorts of negative side effects, such as making cookies unavailable
> etc. For non-Web clients such as email and calendar, having any
> kind of overridable warning increases the risk that people will
> click through those warnings and expose their sensitive information
> such as passwords, which is why many clients are moving away from
> this kind of UI.
UI design is a tricky art, and I agree that some users might see (or 
type) https:// in a field and assume that the connection is secure.   
But I think it's possible for UI designs to be more informative and less 
likely to be misunderstood, if the designers understand why it's 
important.     I also think that IETF is on thin ice if we think we're 
in a better position than UI designers to decide what effectively 
informs users and allows them to make effective choices, across all 
devices and use cases.

Keith