Re: [Tsv-art] Tsvart last call review of draft-ietf-suit-architecture-11

Hannes Tschofenig <Hannes.Tschofenig@arm.com> Tue, 13 October 2020 13:38 UTC

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From: Hannes Tschofenig <Hannes.Tschofenig@arm.com>
To: Bob Briscoe <ietf@bobbriscoe.net>, "tsv-art@ietf.org" <tsv-art@ietf.org>
CC: "last-call@ietf.org" <last-call@ietf.org>, "draft-ietf-suit-architecture.all@ietf.org" <draft-ietf-suit-architecture.all@ietf.org>, "suit@ietf.org" <suit@ietf.org>
Thread-Topic: [Tsv-art] Tsvart last call review of draft-ietf-suit-architecture-11
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Date: Tue, 13 Oct 2020 13:38:17 +0000
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Archived-At: <https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/msg/tsv-art/tqd5dXdtmGCvZIYz92Io6KfgsOM>
Subject: Re: [Tsv-art] Tsvart last call review of draft-ietf-suit-architecture-11
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Hi Bob,

following my post to the SUIT mailing for feedback here is the proposal for an updated draft to address your comments:
https://github.com/suit-wg/architecture/pull/12

Here is the link to the new document:
https://github.com/hannestschofenig/architecture/blob/patch-4/draft-ietf-suit-architecture.txt

Ciao
Hannes


-----Original Message-----
From: Bob Briscoe <ietf@bobbriscoe.net>
Sent: Tuesday, August 11, 2020 2:51 PM
To: Bob Briscoe <ietf@bobbriscoe.net>et>; tsv-art@ietf.org
Cc: last-call@ietf.org; draft-ietf-suit-architecture.all@ietf.org; suit@ietf.org
Subject: Re: [Tsv-art] Tsvart last call review of draft-ietf-suit-architecture-11

I notice that the review upload process has munged some of the line wrap. I've re-instated it below.

On 10/08/2020 00:33, Bob Briscoe via Datatracker wrote:
> Reviewer: Bob Briscoe
> Review result: Ready with Issues
>
> This document has been reviewed as part of the transport area review
> team's ongoing effort to review key IETF documents. These comments
> were written primarily for the transport area directors, but are
> copied to the document's authors and WG to allow them to address any
> issues raised and also to the IETF discussion list for information.
>
> When done at the time of IETF Last Call, the authors should consider
> this review as part of the last-call comments they receive. Please
> always CC tsv-art@ietf.org if you reply to or forward this review.
>
> This review is long. For the benefit of busy readers, it is structured
> with 7 important issues listed first (and tagged either as technical
> or editorial), followed by minor editorial comments for the authors.
>
> Altho' it is ostensibly from the Transport Area Review Team, this
> review identifies only one transport-related issue (see item #6a).
> Most of the major discussion points are offered with a security hat on.
>
> First I want to say that there's a lot of useful stuff in the draft.
> So I'd like to apologize that the review comments raise issues, and do
> not dwell on praising all the good stuff.
>
> == Important Issues ==
>
> 1. Motivation for publication by the IETF [Editorial]
>
> Until I reached the summary of the recent IoT IAB workshop in the
> first para of the Security Considerations section, I was wondering why
> the IETF needed to publish this. It seemed to be a description of what
> is already done in the industry, but framed as an architecture. Most
> of this first para of the Security Considerations section motivates
> this work, and ought to be moved to the Introduction.
>
> Even then, a document that describes what the industry already does
> isn't a sufficient response to a security problem. Given (I believe)
> the intention is to encourage the industry to systematically cater for
> firmware updates, perhaps the draft needs to be a little more
> hard-hitting (without being patronizing of course). Rather than giving
> the impression (except in the abstract) that it is just describing
> current industry practice. For instance, see item #2 below about
> saying what not to do. I would also suggest that it should highlight
> the simplest architecture, only giving optional more complex extras
> later (see item
> #4 below).
>
> 2. Is Anything Not Allowed by this Architecture? [Technical+Editorial]
>
> a) A good architecture precludes as well as includes. Would it be
> useful to list some common practices that are insecure, and perhaps
> some common misconceptions about secure firmware update?
>
> b) I could hardly find anything in this draft that did not equally
> apply to firmware update of "Non-Things". It would indeed be useful to define a 'Thing'
> (at least what this document means by it). I suggest:
> * unattended operation
> * not within the operator's physical security control
>
> c) On the subject of ruling things out, I felt the list of items ruled
> out of scope in the Security Considerations include some items that
> are so central to IoT that they should not have been ruled out of
> scope, and in the first two cases quoted below, they didn't need to be
> ruled out of scope, because the document addresses them:
> "
>    - installing firmware updates in a robust fashion so that the update
>      does not break the device functionality of the environment this
>      device operates in.
>    - the distribution of the actual firmware update, potentially in an
>      efficient manner to a large number of devices without human
>      involvement
>    - energy efficiency and battery lifetime considerations.
> "
> And, wouldn't it be better to move scoping statements to just after
> the Intro, rather than in Security Considerations? (And, yes, I know
> that not all Things are energy-challenged, but the size of the subset
> that are is significant.)
>
> 3. Relying on Software with Security Vulnerabilities to Patch Security
> Vulnerabilities [Technical]
>
> The Intro only mentions 'software updates' generally, and doesn't
> explicitly mention patching security vulnerabilities (altho the
> abstract does). Only having read the Security Considerations section,
> do I discover that the draft is primarily meant to be about patching firmware vulnerabilities.
>
> That raises the question of how secure it is to download new firmware
> from a device booted from firmware that is potentially already
> compromised. As a minimum, surely the draft needs to mention this point. And preferably:
> * whether anything can be trusted once firmware is compromised, and if so what.
> * whether it is still worth updating firmware, even once a
> vulnerability in the firmware update process has been identified, given:
>    o identification of a vulnerability does not necessarily imply it has been
>    exploited, or not prevalently exploited
>    o a vulnerability might not make the firmware update process itself
>    vulnerable (with an explanation of how to tell)
> * describe which aspects of the firmware update process need to be run
> within a TEE (and which not if any)
> * should the TEE lock the device against booting if a firmware
> authentication or integrity check fails
>    o how to prevent tampering with firmware integrity from itself being used as
>    an attack, e.g.
>      - by ensuring that, once a device is locked against booting, firmware
>      re-update is never completely disabled
>      - by ensuring firmware updates are not immediately retried without an
>      exponentially increasing timer back-off, otherwise retries could lead to
>      the devices flooding their own network with fruitless update traffic.
>
> 4. Please Focus More on the Simplest Architecture [Technical]
>
> All the following increase system complexity, but are not /essential/
> for strong security:
> a) Status Tracking Per Device
> b) Confidentiality of the firmware binary
> c) Robustness against rendering the device unbootable
> d) Supporting both Message Authentication and Object Authentication (see item
>     #5)
> e) Broadcast Friendly (see item #6)
>
> This draft is meant to be persuading the 'industry of Things' to
> provide built-in secure firmware update. It tends to fall into the
> common trap of setting the security bar so high that practitioners might give up in despair.
>
> a) Per-device status tracking certainly might be preferred by many
> operators, but the alternative of the operator not knowing the status
> of each individual device might be acceptable (as in the example in
> Figure 5). Per-device status tracking introduces the following complexity:
> * a need to separately identify each device, both on each device, and
> in the status tracker.
> * a need to securely identify each separate device (to prevent
> compromised devices masquerading as all the other devices to give a
> false sense of security), requiring management of separate public or
> shared keys
>
> b) Confidentiality certainly might provide defence in depth against
> reverse engineering the binaries, but it is ultimately security by
> obscurity, and so ultimately optional. By definition (see item #2b)
> 'Things' are not in a physically secure environment. So, unless all
> devices decrypt all downloaded binaries within a TEE and store them in
> tamper-proof memory, once the binaries are stored on each device, they
> will be accessible to external inspection anyway. So the document
> should be less dogmatic about confidentiality protection (3rd para of
> Intro), and at least explain that, with IoT, confidentiality on the
> wire is moot unless there is also confidential device storage as well.
>
> c) Robustness against rendering the device unbootable Often, when I
> initiate an (attended) firmware update, the OS warns me that this is a
> sensitive process that could render the device useless if the power
> fails part-way through. So clearly, this is a cost-tradeoff that
> device designers are willing to compromise on. Therefore, I don't
> think the IETF is entitled to pronounce a requirement against this
> practice. I would rather see this text moved from Requirements to
> somewhere else in the doc, as a commentary on the implementation
> issues, rather than stating it as a requirement. Climbing down a bit at the end by saying it is only an implementation requirement doesn't help.
>
> 5. Both Message Authentication and Whole Object Authentication?
> [Technical]
>
> Message authentication codes aren't specifically mentioned, until
> sections 7 & 8, where they are mentioned as if they might be used,
> without saying why or how. The document needs to discuss the merits of
> MACs vs. authentication of the whole manifest and/or the whole firmware binary.
>
> Ultimately, if an object's authenticity and integrity will be verified
> once it is fully delivered, there is no need for MACs as well.
> However, using message authentication reduces the risk that the device
> is talking with an imposter at an early stage in the transmission,
> rather than having to wait until it is complete. And it is easy to
> arrange message authentication to cumulatively authenticate the whole
> object, without additional infrastructure for whole-object
> verification. Therefore using MACs could avoid the need to provide
> enough storage for a complete update of the firmware as well as the
> current version - after verifying the manifest and the first message, the device could even start to overwrite the firmware it is currently booted from.
>
> The above strategy would not be without risk, but my point is not just
> to suggest this particular strategy. The document ought to at least
> discuss the trade-offs between MACs and whole-objection
> authentication, and whether both are really necessary.
>
> 6. Friendly to Broadcast Delivery? [Technical]
>
> Section 3. states this as one of the "Requirements", although the text
> softens it to "may be desirable for some networks". However, broadcast
> delivery introduces the three significant problems below, wrt a)
> reliable transport; b) device energy efficiency; and c) broadcast message authentication.
>
> a) Reliable Broadcast Transport
> Delivery of binary objects needs to recover lost or corrupt packets.
> Reliable broadcast delivery at scale is extremely challenging. It
> needs either fountain coding [1] or reliable multicast.
> * Fountain coding delivers an object in a continually repeating stream
> and ensures that the data in any missing packet can be reconstructed
> from data in a subsequent different packet. But this would increase device complexity.
> * For broadcast delivery, per-packet acknowledgements (ACKs) from each
> device do not scale. Negative ACKs (NACKs) can be used but they also
> do not scale. If a loss is experienced close to the root of the
> broadcast/multicast, it still causes an implosion of negative ACKs
> (NACKs) on the sender. Reliable multicast (e.g. PGM [RFC3208])
> arranges a spreading tree of delivery nodes each of which handles
> NACKs solely from its next-degree downstream neighbours. Clearly this increases network or CDN complexity.
>
> b) Broadcast Energy Efficiency
> If the IoT device is wireless and needs to take care with its energy
> consumption, it will need to initiate all communications, rather than
> have to sit with its radio powered up listening for an incoming
> message. However, of course, it is not possible for each device to
> independently initiate an incoming broadcast. It would be possible for
> a broadcast to be scheduled, and for each device to poll for the
> schedule. But this would add complexity, particularly because all the
> device clocks would have to be fairly closely synchronized.
>
> c) Broadcast Message Authentication
> Message authentication has potential advantages over whole-object
> authentication (see #5). When MACs are used over unicast, typically
> the cost of asymmetric crypto for each message is avoided by using
> asymmetric crypto just once to transmit a shared key, which is then
> used to verify each MAC. However, that process is only secure for
> unicast. For broadcast or multicast delivery, the sender only sends
> each message once, using one key for the MAC that would therefore have
> to be shared with every receiver. Then any receiver could masquerade
> as the genuine sender. TESLA is a solution to this [RFC4082], but it
> would again increase the complexity of each device and the servers,
> not least because it requires loose clock synch (nonetheless, uTESLA has been implemented for challenged devices [2]).
>
> Aside regarding broadcast encryption:
> In section 3.3. "Use state-of-the-art security mechanisms", it says:
>    "The information that is encrypted individually for each device must
>    maintain friendliness to Content Distribution Networks, bulk storage,
>    and broadcast protocols."
> That implies a magic encyption scheme that is beyond any
> state-of-the-art that I am aware of! If information is encrypted
> individually for each device, surely by definition it will not be
> friendly to broadcast protocols. Actually, I suspect the authors did
> not mean to say "encrypted individually for each device", because a
> shared group key is adequate for confidentiality - a shared group key is only problematic for message or source authentication (see above).
>
> 7. Missing Security Concerns [Technical]
>
> a) Avoiding Reliance on the Device's System Clock
>
> I suggest that the document makes the point that it is preferable for
> the firmware update process not to rely on the device's system clock.
>
> Reasoning: Even if the TEE maintains the system clock, protection
> against attacks on this clock rely on voting between multiple time
> sources. No amount of authentication provides any proof of message
> timing. So, it is hard for a TEE to protect against tampering with the
> timing of its messages, given they pass via the untrusted execution
> environment of the rest of the device, similar to the problem of a secure time source for virtualized functions [3].
>
> I think IoT developers can be reassured that none of the requirements
> for firmware update need to rely on the system clock. For instance
> roll-back attack prevention (section 3.4) only requires comparison
> between version numbers, not comparison between a release time and the clock.
>
> However, I think not relying on the clock is worth mentioning, because
> key expiry and key revocation have to be designed carefully to avoid
> relying on secure time, and this is a subtle point that might not be
> appreciated by IoT device designers.
>
> b) Key revocation
>
> When keys are in tamper-resistant storage but otherwise not within a
> physically secure site, the question of revocation surely has to be
> addressed. In particular, there should be a discussion about the
> advisability or otherwise of pre-loading the same keys into multiple devices.
>
> == Minor Editorial Issues ==
>
> 1. Intro
>    "Updates to the firmware of an IoT device are done to fix bugs in software..."
> This would be a good place to highlight the focus on patching security
> vulnerabilities.
>
> "This version of the document assumes... Future versions may also describe..."
> I assume this aspiration needs to be deleted now?
>
> 2. Terminology
>
> There are ~22 occurrences of lower case 'must' in this document, and
> one 'should' (excluding multiple uses in rhetorical questions). I'm
> not sure whether it is intentional to make it seem like this is an RFC
> that is mandating behaviour, perhaps for readers who don't understand
> the subtleties of the IETF informational track. I would prefer it to
> be clear that this document is not mandating anything, by using
> alternatives to 'must' like 'ought to' or 'has to'. Otherwise it could be considered disingenuous.
>
>    "The term ’system on chip (SoC)’ is often used for these types of devices."
> Perhaps more useful:
>    "The term ’system on chip (SoC)’ is often used interchangeably with MCU, but
>    MCU tends to imply more limited peripheral functions."
>
>    "The following entities are used:"
> The list is a mix of stakeholders and functions, which tends to show
> that the authors themselves might not be clear about the distinction.
> It would be useful to split into two lists.
>
>    "The terms device and
>    firmware consumer are used interchangeably since the firmware
>    consumer is one software component running on an MCU on the
>    device."
> I didn't notice them being used interchangeably. If they are anywhere,
> why not just edit to use whichever term is more appropriate and delete this sentence?
>
> Status Tracker
>    "While the IoT device itself runs the client-
>    side of the status tracker it will most likely not run a status
>    tracker itself unless it acts as a proxy for other IoT devices in
>    a protocol translation or edge computing device node."
> The client-side of a status tracker surely does run a status tracker
> itself (the clue is in the name). I know what is intended, but the
> writer was clearly in two minds as to whether a status tracker is the
> combination of client and server or just the server.
>
> 3. Requirements
>
> 3.5 "High reliability" -> 'Robust against becoming unbootable'.
> The title for this requirement otherwise implies a much more general
> requirement than the description under it.
>
> 3.6 Small bootloader
> "...again using firmware updates over serial, USB or even wireless
> connectivity like a limited version of Bluetooth Smart."
> Don't see why it has to be "...a limited version of...". Suggest these
> words are deleted.
>
> s/poses a risk in reliability/
>   /poses a reliability risk/
>
> s/must fit in the available RAM/
>   /must fit in the available memory/
> (not necessarily RAM)
>
> s|there are not other task/processing running|
>   |there are not other tasks/processes running|
>
> s/unlike it may be the case/
>   /unlike that which may be the case/
>
> s/Note: This is an implementation requirement./
>   /Note: This last paragraph is an implementation requirement./
> (Otherwise, 'this' could ambiguously refer to the whole requirement)
>
> 3.7 Small Parsers
> "Since parsers are known sources of bugs they must be minimal."
> To be honest, I suspect the target audience will find this sentence
> and others like it rather pious. Given the purpose of this document is
> meant to be to encourage implementers to provide secure firmware
> update, I think these peripheral "requirements" will just serve to
> make any implementers reading this feel they are being patronized.
>
> As with the earlier requirement about 'robustness against becoming
> unbootable', I think many of these 'requirements' would be easier to
> stomach within a discussion of tradeoffs, rather than as a list of
> pronouncements that demand perfection.
>
> 3.8
> s/Minimal impact on existing firmware formats/
>   /No impact on existing firmware formats/
> Reason: This is what the text underneath says.
>
> 3.9 Robust permissions
>
>    "...the authorization policy is separated from the
>    underlying communication architecture. This is accomplished by
>    separating the entities from their permissions."
> I'm not sure whether either of these sentences makes much sense (at
> least not to me). Perhaps the first sentence means to say that
>    "...the authorization policy is separated from the
>    firmware it applies to"
> And then the second sentence could be deleted. I'm not sure the second
> sentence would ever be necessary, because entities are always separate
> from their permissions (otherwise you would have to access an entity
> to find out you weren't allowed to access it). To be honest, I don't
> really see the point of the whole requirement. So if it is important,
> maybe its meaning needs to be clarified for people like me. Otherwise,
> if it's just stating the obvious, maybe it's not necessary at all.
>
> 3.10. Operating modes
> Later, in S.5. the term 'delivery modes' is used. If these are meant
> to mean the same thing, then the same term should be used
> consistently. In my experience, the term 'interaction model' is used
> to describe things like polled request-reply, push, publish-subscribe, etc.
>
> "The pre-authorisation step involves verifying..."
> When describing a distributed system, pls avoid passive sentences like
> this, which don't specify which entity is performing the action. It is
> followed up later by "...the firmware consumer must also...", which
> implies the subject is the firmware consumer, but it's best not to
> rely on implication, especially not if it requires two passes to understand.
>
>    "Pushing a manifest and firmware image to the transfer to
>    the Package resource of the LwM2M Firmware Update object"
> Garbled?
>
>    "...it may need to wait for a trigger from the
>    status tracker to initiate the installation, may trigger the update
>    automatically, or may go through a more complex decision making
>    process to determine the appropriate timing for an update"
> I had to read this a few times before realizing it was a list.
> How about:
>    "... to initiate the installation, it may either need to wait for a trigger
>    from the status tracker; or trigger the update automatically; or go through a
>    more complex decision making process to determine the appropriate timing for
>    an update"
>
> 3.11.
> s/Suitability to software and personalization data/
>   /Suitability for software and personalization data/
>
> The document suddenly jumps into a different style at the start of
> 3.11, more like an log of WG activity than a requirement. Pls consider
> making the style consistent, especially given it switches back after
> the first sentence of the 2nd para.
>
> 4. Claims
> s/Only install firmware with a matching vendor/
>   /Only install firmware with a matching author/ ?
>
> 5. Communication Architecture
>
> The document often repeats that it's agnostic to the communication
> architecture, then this section starts with the phrase:
>    "Figure 1 shows the communication architecture..."
> Perhaps it means 'firmware update architecture'?
> Or, possibly this implies that the authors are in two minds as to what
> 'communications architecture' means. Or the heading was intended to be
> 'Communications Architectures' (plural) and the first phrase was meant to say
>    "Figure 1 shows an example communication architecture..."
>
> The text needs to make it clear that a status tracker is optional in
> the client pull case but not in the server push case (see item #4a earlier).
>
> It would be useful for the doc to say what it means for an operator
> circle to enclose a function. For instance the 'Device Operator' in
> Fig 1 encloses the status tracker, which to me implies it controls the
> status tracker. However, the network operator encloses the device,
> which probably doesn't imply it operates the device. Perhaps an
> enclosing circle means 'within the physical security control of'? The
> network operator isn't mentioned in the text - why is it in the
> diagram, given it has no role in the firmware update, other than as a common carrier of opaque bits?
>
>    "The following assumptions are made to allow the firmware consumer to
>    verify the received firmware image and manifest before updating
>    software:"
> The following three bullets aren't really assumptions. Perhaps
> 'statements about the verification process' would be a better phrase.
> Would another reference to suit-information-model here be useful, to
> explain why the details are not given here?
>
> See item #4b) above about highlighting that confidentiality is
> optional, not just 'deployment specific'.
>
>    "There are different types of delivery modes, which are illustrated
>    based on examples below."
> Shouldn't this sentence start section 5? (Also see my earlier point
> about 'operating modes' / 'interaction modes' terminology).
>
> Fig 3 is inconsistent with Fig 1, in that it omits the firmware
> consumer function.
>
> Fig 4 is inconsistent with Figs 1 & 3, in that there is also an arrow
> from the status tracker to the author. What does this imply?
>
>    "This architecture does not mandate a specific delivery mode but a
>    solution must support both types.
> Whatever for? This requirement surely over-plays the IETF's hand,
> which is not in a position to make such a demand? Is the intention
> really that being agnostic to the delivery mode means every solution
> must support all delivery modes?
>
> 6. Manifest
>
> Given each of the items in the second bullet list addresses one of the
> questions in the first bullet list, it would be useful to tabulate
> them side-by-side and to put them in a more meaningful order, e.g. in
> the order they occur during firmware update. Also, the the first
> question bullet (author
> trust) is not specifically addressed in the second list - implied
> within the last bullet, but not explicitly stated.
>
> 7.1
> s/Combined with the non-relocatable nature of the code/
>   /Due to the non-relocatable nature of the code/
>
> 7.3
>    "This configuration has two or more CPUs in a single SoC that share
>    memory (flash and RAM). Generally, they will be a protection
>    mechanism to prevent one CPU from accessing the other’s memory."
> I know what is intended, but it reads as if line 1 contradicts line 3. Perhaps:
>   "...
>    mechanism to prevent one CPU from unintentionally accessing memory currently
>    allocated to the other."
>
> 9. Example
>
> In at least one example figure, it would be useful to show the initial
> pre-loading of keys, policy logic and trust anchor into the firmware
> consumer / bootloader.
>
> s/starting with an author uploading the new firmware to firmware server/
>   /starting with an author uploading the new firmware to the firmware
> server/
>
>    "This setup does
>    not use a status tracker and the firmware consumer component is
>    therefore responsible for periodically checking whether a new
>    firmware image is available for download."
> It needs to be much clearer that the status tracker has both a
> monitoring function and an update triggering function. So, altho it is
> essential in the server push model - to trigger updates, it's
> monitoring function means it is not ruled out for the client pull model.
>
> Fig 5 & 6 are inconsistent, in that the former omits the IoT device
> box around the Firmware consumer and bootloader.
>
> s/Figure 6 shows an example follow with the device using a status tracker./
>   /Figure 6 shows an example with the device using a status tracker./
>
>    "For editorial reasons the author publishing the manifest at
>    the status tracker and the firmware image at the firmware server is
>    not shown."
> How about:
>    "Depiction of the author publishing the manifest at
>    the status tracker and the firmware image at the firmware server would
>    be the same as in Figure 5. So for brevity they are not shown."
>
> 11. Security Considerations
>
> Between
>    "A report about this workshop can be found at [RFC8240]."
> and
>    "A standardized firmware manifest format..."
> there either needs to be some glue text to explain that the initial
> manifest format was an output of the workshop (if it was), or a new
> para if the second sentence really doesn't follow from the first.
>
> Note also that I suggest (item #1) that the motivating text about the
> workshop should be moved to the introduction. I also say (in item 2c)
> that the scoping bullets would be better at the end of the Intro too.
> However, I can also see a case for them remaining under Security
> Considerations; to admit that the document does not fully address all possible security concerns.
>
> Given this could leave nothing in the Security Considerations section,
> it would be appropriate to merely point to all the sections of the
> document that already cover security matters.
>
> == References ==
> [1] Byers, J.; Luby, M.; Mitzenmacher, M. & Rege, A. A Digital
> Fountain Approach to Reliable Distribution of Bulk Data Proc. ACM
> SIGCOMM'98, Computer Communication Review, 1998, 28
>
> [2] Perrig, A.; Szewczyk, R.; Wen, V.; Culler, D. E. & Tygar, J. D. SPINS:
> Security Protocols for Sensor Networks Proc. ACM International
> Conference on Mobile Computing and Networks (Mobicom'01), 2001,
> 189-199
>
> [3] Briscoe (Ed.), B. & others Network Functions Virtualisation;
> Security; Problem Statement ETSI NFV Industry Specification Group
> (ISG), ETSI NFV Industry Specification Group (ISG), 2014
>
>
>
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> Tsv-art@ietf.org
> https://www.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/tsv-art

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________________________________________________________________
Bob Briscoe                               http://bobbriscoe.net/

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