New version of the index protocol paper

Chris Weider <clw@mocha.bunyip.com> Fri, 09 June 1995 19:18 UTC

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Date: Fri, 9 Jun 95 14:47:43 -0400
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From: Chris Weider <clw@mocha.bunyip.com>
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To: ietf-wnils@ucdavis.edu
Subject: New version of the index protocol paper

This version has only one minor change, to reflect the protocol as it
is actually implemented: SERVERS-TO-ASK, with a list of servers, has been
replaced with SERVER-TO-ASK, with each server in a block by itself.
This has been implemented and running since March.
Chris


WNILS Working Group                                     Chris Weider
INTERNET-DRAFT                                          Merit Network, Inc.
<draft-ietf-wnils-whois-05.txt>                         Jim Fullton
                                                        CNIDR
                                                        Simon Spero
                                                        EIT
							June, 1995


        Architecture of the Whois++ Index Service

Status of this memo:

The authors describe an architecture for indexing in distributed databases,
and apply this to the WHOIS++ protocol.


        This document is an Internet Draft.  Internet Drafts are working 
        documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its Areas, 
        and its Working Groups. Note that other groups may also distribute
        working documents as Internet Drafts. 

        Internet Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six 
        months. Internet Drafts may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted
        by other documents at any time.  It is not appropriate to use
        Internet Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than
        as a "working draft" or "work in progress."

        Please check the I-D abstract listing contained in each Internet 
        Draft directory to learn the current status of this or any 
        other Internet Draft.

        This Internet Draft expires December 20, 1995.

1. Purpose:

The WHOIS++ directory service [Deutsch, et al, 1995] is intended to provide
a simple, extensible directory service predicated on a template-based
information model and a flexible query language. This document describes
a general architecture designed for indexing distributed databases, and then
applys that architecture to link together many of these WHOIS++ servers
into a distributed, searchable wide area directory service.

2. Scope:

This document details a distributed, easily maintained architecture for
providing a unified index to a large number of distributed WHOIS++
servers. This architecture can be used with systems other than WHOIS++ to
provide a distributed directory service which is also searchable.

3. Motivation and Introduction:

It seems clear that with the vast amount of directory information potentially
available on the Internet, it is simply not feasible to build a centralized
directory to serve all this information. If we are to distribute the directory
service, the easiest (although not necessarily the best) way of building the 
directory service is to build a hierarchy of directory information collection 
agents. In this architecture, a directory query is delivered to a certain agent
in the tree, and then handed up or down, as appropriate, so that the query
is delivered to the agent which holds the information which fills the query.
This approach has been tried before, most notably in some implementations of
the X.500 standard. However, there are number of major flaws with the approach
as it has been taken. This new Index Service is designed to fix these flaws.



3.1. The search problem

One of the primary assumptions made by recent implementations of distributed
directory services is that every entry resides in some location in a hierarch-
ical name space. While this arrangement is ideal for reading the entry once
one knows its location, it is not as good when one is searching for the 
location in the namespace of those entries which meet some set of criteria.  
If the only criteria we know about a desired entry are items which do not 
appear in the namespace, we are forced to do a global query. Whenever we issue
a global query (at the root of the namespace), or a query at the top of a 
given subtree in the namespace, that query is replicated to _all_ subtrees of 
the starting point. The replication of the query to all subtrees is not 
necessarily a problem; queries are cheap. However, every server to which the 
query has been replicated must process that query, even if it has no entries 
which match the specified criteria. This part of the global query processing 
is quite expensive. A poorly designed namespace or a thin namespace can cause 
the vast majority of queries to be replicated globally, but a very broad 
namespace can cause its own navigation problems. Because of these problems,
search has been turned off at high levels of the X.500 namespace.

3.2. The location problem

With global search turned off, one must know in advance how the name space is
laid out so that one can guide a query to a proper location. Also, the layout
of the namespace then becomes critical to a user's ability to find the 
desired information. Thus there are endless battles about how to lay out the
name space to best serve a given set of users, and enormous headaches whenever
it becomes apparent that the current namespace is unsuited to the current
usages and must be changed (as recently happened in X.500). Also, assuming
one does impose multiple hierarchies on the entries through use of the 
namespace, the mechanisms to maintain these multiple hierarchies in X.500 do
not exist yet, and it is possible to move entries out from under their 
pointers.  Also, there is as yet no agreement on how the X.500 namespace
should look even for the White Pages types of information that is currently
installed in the X.500 pilot project.

3.3. The Yellow Pages problem

Current implementations of this hierarchical architecture have also been
unsuited to solving the Yellow Pages problem; that is, the problem of
easily and flexibly building special-purpose directories (say of molecular
biologists) and of automatically maintaining these directories once they have
been built. In particular, the attributes appropriate to the new directory
must be built into the namespace because that is the only way to segregate
related entries into a place where they can be found without a global 
search. Also, there is a classification problem; how does one adequately
specify the proper categories so that people other than the creator of the
directory can find the correct subtree? Additionally, there is the problem
of actually finding the data to put into the subtree; if one must traverse
the hierarchy to find the data, we have to look globally for the proper 
entries.

3.4. Solutions 

The problems examined in this section can be addressed by a combination of two
new techniques: directory meshes and forward knowledge.


4. Directory meshes and forward knowledge

We'll hold off for a moment on describing the actual architecture used in
our solution to these problems and concentrate on a high level description of
what solutions are provided by our conceptual approach. To begin with,
although every entry in WHOIS++ does indeed have a unique identifier 
(resides in a specific location in the namespace) the navigational algorithms
to reach a specific entry do not necessarily depend on the identifier the
entry has been assigned. The Index Service gets around the namespace and
hierarchy problems by creating a directory mesh on top of the entries.
Each layer of the mesh has a set of 'forward knowledge' which indicates the
contents of the various servers at the next lower layer of the mesh. Thus 
when a query is received by a server in a given layer of the mesh, it can
prune the search tree and hand the query off to only those lower level servers
which have indicated that they might be able to answer it. Thus search becomes
feasible at all levels of the mesh. In the current version of this 
architecture, we have chosen a certain set of information to hand up the mesh 
as forward knowledge. This may or may not be exactly the set of information 
required to construct a truly searchable directory, but the protocol itself 
doesn't restrict the types of information which can be handed around.

In addition, the protocols designed to maintain the forward knowledge will
also work perfectly well to provide replication of servers for redundancy
and robustness. In this case, the forward knowledge handed around by the
protocols is the entire database of entries held by the replicated server.

Another benefit provided by the mesh of index servers is that since the
entry identification scheme has been decoupled from the navigation service,
multiple hierarchies can be built and easily maintained on top of the 
existing data. Also, the user does not need to know in advance where in the 
mesh the entry is contained.

Also, the Yellow Pages problem now becomes tractable, as the index servers
can pick and choose between information proffered by a given server; 
because we have an architecture that allows for automatic polling of data, 
special purpose directories become easy to construct and to maintain.


5. Components of the Index Service:

5.1. WHOIS++ servers

The whois++ service is described in [Deutsch, et al, 1994]. As that service 
specifies only the query language, the information model, and the server 
responses, whois++ services can be provided by a wide variety of databases 
and directory services. However, to participate in the Index Service, that 
underlying database must also be able to generate a 'centroid', or some other
type of forward knowledge, for the data it serves.

5.2. Centroids as forward knowledge

The centroid of a server is comprised of a list of the templates and 
attributes used by that server, and a word list for each attribute.
The word list for a given attribute contains one occurrence of every 
word which appears at least once in that attribute in some record in that 
server's data, and nothing else.

For example, if a whois++ server contains exactly three records, as follows:

Record 1                        Record 2
Template: User                  Template: User
First Name: John                First Name: Joe
Last Name: Smith                Last Name: Smith
Favourite Drink: Labatt Beer    Favourite Drink: Molson Beer

Record 3
Template: Domain
Domain Name: foo.edu
Contact Name: Mike Foobar

the centroid for this server would be

Template:         User
First Name:       Joe
                  John
Last Name:        Smith
Favourite Drink:  Beer
                  Labatt
                  Molson

Template:         Domain
Domain Name:      foo.edu
Contact Name:     Mike
                  Foobar
                  
It is this information which is handed up the tree to provide forward 
knowledge.  As we mention above, this may not turn out to be the ideal 
solution for forward knowledge, and we suspect that there may be a number of 
different sets of forward knowledge used in the Index Service. However, the 
directory architecture is in a very real sense independent of what types of 
forward knowledge are handed around, and it is entirely possible to build a 
unified directory which uses many types of forward knowledge.
                
5.3. Index servers and Index server Architecture

A whois++ index server collects and collates the centroids (or other forward 
knowledge) of either a number of whois++ servers or of a number of other index
servers. An index server must be able to generate a centroid for the
information it contains. In addition, an index server can index any other
server it wishes, which allows one base level server (or index server) to
participate in many hierarchies in the directory mesh.

5.3.1. Queries to index servers

An index server will take a query in standard whois++ format, search its
collections of centroids and other forward information, determine which 
servers hold records which may fill that query, and then notifies the 
user's client of the next servers to contact to submit the query (referral in
the X.500 model). An index server can also contain primary data of its own; 
and thus act a both an index server and a base level server. In this case, the
index server's response to a query may be a mix of records and referral 
pointers.

5.3.2. Index server distribution model and centroid propogation

The diagram on the next page illustrates how a mesh of index servers might be
created for a set of whois++ servers. Although it looks like a hierarchy,
the protocols allow (for example) server A to be indexed by both server
D and by server H. 



  whois++               index                   index
  servers               servers                 servers
                        for                     for
                        whois++                 lower-level
                        servers                 index servers
  _______
 |       |             
 |   A   |__
 |_______|  \            _______
             \----------|       |
  _______               |   D   |__             ______
 |       |   /----------|_______|  \           |      |
 |   B   |__/                       \----------|      |
 |_______|                                     |  F   |
                                    /----------|______|
                                   /
  _______                _______  /
 |       |              |       |-
 |   C   |--------------|   E   |
 |_______|              |_______|-
                                  \
                                   \
  _______                           \            ______
 |       |                           \----------|      |
 |   G   |--------------------------------------|  H   |
 |_______|                                      |______|


                Figure 1: Sample layout of the Index Service mesh
_______________________________________________________________________________


In the portion of the index tree shown above, whois++ servers A and B hand 
their centroids up to index server D, whois++ server C hands its centroid up 
to index server E, and index servers D and E hand their centroids up to index 
server F. Servers E and G also hand their centroids up to H.

The number of levels of index servers, and the number of index servers at each
level, will depend on the number of whois++ servers deployed, and the response
time of individual layers of the server tree. These numbers will have to 
be determined in the field.

5.3.3. Centroid propogation and changes to centroids

Centroid propogation is initiated by an authenticated POLL command (sec. 5.2).
The format of the POLL command allows the poller to request the centroid of
any or all templates and attributes held by the polled server. After the
polled server has authenticated the poller, it determines which of the 
requested centroids the poller is allowed to request, and then issues a
CENTROID-CHANGES report (sec. 5.3) to transmit the data. When the poller
receives the CENTROID-CHANGES report, it can authenticate the pollee to
determine whether to add the centroid changes to its data. Additionally, if
a given pollee knows what pollers hold centroids from the pollee, it can
signal to those pollers the fact that its centroid has changed by issuing
a DATA-CHANGED command. The poller can then determine if and when to 
issue a new POLL request to get the updated information. The DATA-CHANGED
command is included in this protocol to allow 'interactive' updating of
critical information.



5.3.4. Centroid propogation and mesh traversal

When an index server issues a POLL request, it may indicate to the polled
server what relationship it has to the polled. This information can be
used to help traverse the directory mesh. Two fields are specified in the
current proposal to transmit the relationship information, although it is
expected that richer relationship information will be shared in future 
revisions of this protocol. 

One field used for this information is the
Hierarchy field, and can take on three values. The first is 'topology',
which indicates that the indexing server is at a higher level in the network
topology (e.g. indexes the whole regional ISP). The second is 'geographical',
which indicates that the polling server covers a geographical area subsuming
the pollee. The third is 'administrative', which indicates that
the indexing server covers an administrative domain subsuming the pollee.

The second field used for this information is the Description field, which
contains the DESCRIBE record of the polling server. This allows users to
obtain richer metainformation for the directory mesh, enabling them to expand
queries more effectively. 

5.3.5. Query handling and passing algorithms

When an index server receives a query, it searches its collection of centroids
and determines which servers hold records which may fill that query. As
whois++ becomes widely deployed, it is expected that some index servers
may specialize in indexing certain whois++ templates or perhaps even
certain fields within those templates. If an index server obtains a match
with the query _for those template fields and attributes the server indexes_,
it is to be considered a match for the purpose of forwarding the query.

5.3.5.1. Query referral

Query referral is the process of informing a client which servers to contact
next to resolve a query.  The syntax for notifying a client is outlined in
section 5.5. 

5.3.6 Loop control

Since there are no a priori restrictions on which servers may poll which other 
servers, and since a given server may participate in many sub-meshes, 
mechanisms must be installed to allow the detection of cycles in the polling
relationships. This is accomplished in the current protocol by including a 
hop-count on polling relationships. Each time a polled server generates 
forward information, it informs the polling server about its current hopcount,
which is the maximum of the hopcounts of all the servers it polls, plus 1.
A base level server (one which polls no other servers) will have a hopcount of 
0. When a server decides to poll a new server, if its hopcount goes up, then
it must information all the other servers which poll it about its new hopcount.
A maximum hopcount (8 in the current version) will help the servers detect 
polling loops. 

A second approach to loop detection is to do all the work in the client;
which would determine which new referrals have already appeared in the referral
list, and then simply iterate the referral process until there are no new 
servers to ask.  An algorithm to accomplish this in WHOIS++ is detailed in
[Faltstrom 95].

 
6. Syntax for operations of the Index Service:

The syntax for each protocol componenet is listed below. In addition,
each section contains a listing of which of these attributes is required and 
optional for each of the componenet. All timestamps must be in the format
YYYYMMDDHHMM and in GMT.

6.1. Data changed syntax

The data changed template look like this:

# DATA-CHANGED
 Version-number: // version number of index service software, used to insure
                 // compatibility. Current value is 1.0
 Time-of-latest-centroid-change: // time stamp of latest centroid change,GMT
 Time-of-message-generation: // time when this message was generated, GMT
 Server-handle: // IANA unique identifier for this server
 Host-Name: // Host name of this server (current name)
 Host-Port: // Port number of this server (current port)
 Best-time-to-poll: // For heavily used servers, this will identify when
                    // the server is likely to be lightly loaded
                    // so that response to the poll will be speedy, GMT
 Authentication-type: // Type of authentication used by server, or NONE
 Authentication-data: // data for authentication 
# END // This line must be used to terminate the data changed 
                 // message

Required/optional table

Version-Number  REQUIRED
Time-of-latest-centroid-change  REQUIRED
Time-of-message-generation      REQUIRED
Server-handle   REQUIRED
Host-Name       REQUIRED
Host-Port       REQUIRED
Best-time-to-poll       OPTIONAL
Authentication-type     OPTIONAL
Authentication-data     OPTIONAL

6.2. Polling syntax

# POLL:
 Version-number: // version number of poller's index software, used to
                 // insure compatibility
 Type-of-poll: // type of forward data requested. CENTROID or QUERY 
               // are the only one currently defined
 Poll-scope: // Selects bounds within which data will be returned. See note.
 Start-time: // give me all the centroid changes starting at this time, GMT
 End-time: // ending at this time, GMT
 Template: // a standard whois++ template name, or the keyword ALL, for a
           // full update.
 Field:    // used to limit centroid update information to specific fields,
           // is either a specific field name, a list of field names, 
           // or the keyword ALL
 Server-handle: // IANA unique identifier for the polling server. 
                // this handle may optionally be cached by the polled
                // server to announce future changes
 Host-Name: // Host name of the polling server.
 Host-Port: // Port number of the polling server.
 Hierarchy: // This field indicates the relationship which the poller
              // bears to the pollee. Typical values might include 
              // 'Topology', 'Geographical", or "Administrative"
 Description: // This field contains the DESCRIBE record of the
                // polling server
 Authentication-type: // Type of authentication used by poller, or NONE
 Authentication-data: // Data for authentication
# END  // This line must by used to terminate the poll message

Note: For poll type CENTROID, the allowable values for Poll Scope are
FULL and RELATIVE. Support of the FULL value is required, this provides
a complete listing of the centroid or other forward information. RELATIVE 
indicates that these are the relative changes in the centroid since the last 
report to the polling server.

For poll type QUERY, the allowable values for Poll
Scope are a blank line, which indicates that all records are to be
returned, or a valid WHOIS++ query, which indicates that just those
records which satisfy the query are to be returned. N.B. Security 
considerations may require additional authentication for successful response 
to the Blank Line Poll Scope. This value has been included for server 
replication.

A polling server may wish to index different types of information than the
polled server has collected. The POLLED-FOR command will indicate which
servers the polled server has contacted.

Required/Optional Table

Version-Number  REQUIRED, value is 1.0
Type-Of-Poll    REQUIRED, values CENTROID and QUERY are required
Poll-scope      REQUIRED  If Type-of-poll is CENTROID, FULL is required,
                          RELATIVE is optional
                          If Type-of-poll is QUERY, Blank line is required,
                          and WHOIS++-type queries are required
Start-time      OPTIONAL
End-Time        OPTIONAL
Template        REQUIRED
Field           REQUIRED
Server-handle   REQUIRED
Host-Name       REQUIRED
Host-Port       REQUIRED
Hierarchy       OPTIONAL
Description     OPTIONAL
Authentication-Type:    OPTIONAL
Authentication-data:    OPTIONAL


Example of a POLL command:
# POLL:
 Version-number: 1.0
 Type-of-poll: CENTROID
 Poll-scope: FULL
 Start-time: 199501281030+0100
 Template: ALL
 Field: ALL
 Server-handle: BUNYIP01
 Host-Name: services.bunyip.com
 Host-Port: 7070
 Hierarchy: Geographical
 # END

 
6.3. Centroid change report

As the centroid change report contains nested multiply-occuring blocks,
each multiply occurring block is surrounded *in this paper* by curly
braces '{', '}'. These curly braces are NOT part of the syntax, they are
for identification purposes only. 

The syntax of a Data: item is either a list of words, one word per line, 
or the keyword:

  ANY

. The keyword ANY as the only item of a Data: list means that any value for
this field should be treated as a hit by the indexing server.

The field Any-field: needs more explanation than can be given in the body
of the syntax description below. It can take two values, True or False. If
the value is True, the pollee is indicating that there are fields in this
template which are not being exported to the polling server, but wishes to 
treat as a hit. Thus, when the polling server gets a query which has a term 
requesting a field not in this list for this template, the polling server 
will treat that term as a 'hit'.  If the value is False, the pollee is 
indicating that there are no other fields for this template which should be 
treated as a hit. This field is required because the basic model for the
WHOIS++ query syntax requires that the results of each search term be 'and'ed
together. This field allows polled servers to export data only for
non-sensitive fields, yet still get referrals of queries which contain 
sensitive terms.

# CENTROID-CHANGES
 Version-number: // version number of pollee's index software, used to
                 // insure compatibility
 Start-time: // change list starting time, GMT
 End-time: // change list ending time, GMT
 Server-handle: // IANA unique identifier of the responding server
 Hop-Count: // One more than the largest value the polled server has received
	// when polling other servers. If the polled server is a leaf server, hop-
	// count should be zero. The current maximum value (Mar. 95) is 8
 Case-sensitive: // states whether data is case sensitive or case
                 // insensitive. values are TRUE or FALSE
 Authentication-type: // Type of authentication used by pollee, or NONE
 Authentication-data: // Data for authentication
 Compression-type: // Type of compression used on the data, or NONE
 Size-of-compressed-data: // size of compressed data if compression is used
 Operation: // One of 3 keywords: ADD, DELETE, FULL
            // ADD - add these entries to the centroid for this server
            // DELETE - delete these entries from the centroid of this
            // server
            // FULL - the full centroid as of end-time follows
{ // The multiply occurring template block starts here
# BEGIN TEMPLATE
 Template: // a standard whois++ template name
 Any-field: // TRUE or FALSE. See beginning of 6.3 for explanation.
 { // the template contains multiple field blocks
# BEGIN FIELD
 Field: // a field name within that template
 Data: // Either the keyword *ANY*, or
       // the word list itself, one per line, cr/lf terminated,
       // each line starting with a dash character ('-').
# END FIELD
  } // the field ends with END FIELD
# END TEMPLATE
} // the template block ends with END TEMPLATE
# END CENTROID-CHANGES // This line must be used to terminate the centroid
                         // change report

For each template, all fields must be listed, or queries will not be
referred correctly.

Required/Optional table

Version-number  REQUIRED, value is 1.0
Start-time      REQUIRED (even if the centroid type is FULL)
End-time        REQUIRED (even if the centroid type is FULL)
Server-handle   REQUIRED
Hop-Count       REQUIRED
Case-Sensitive	OPTIONAL
Authentication-Type     OPTIONAL
Authentication-Data     OPTIONAL
Compression-type        OPTIONAL
Size-of-compressed-data OPTIONAL (even if compression is used)
Operation       REQUIRED, Support for all three values is required
Tokenization-type       REQUIRED
#BEGIN TEMPLATE REQUIRED
Template        REQUIRED
Any-field       REQUIRED
#BEGIN FIELD    REQUIRED
Field           REQUIRED
Data            REQUIRED
#END FIELD      REQUIRED
#END TEMPLATE   REQUIRED
#END CENTROID-CHANGES REQUIRED

Example:

# CENTROID-CHANGES
 Version-number: 1.0
 Start-time: 197001010000
 End-time: 199503012336
 Server-handle: BUNYIP01
 Hop-Count: 3
# BEGIN TEMPLATE
 Template: USER
 Any-field: TRUE
# BEGIN FIELD
 Field: Name
 Data: Patrik
-Faltstrom
-Malin
-Linnerborg
#END FIELD
#BEGIN FIELD
 Field: Email
 Data: paf@bunyip.com
-malin.linnerborg@paf.se
# END FIELD
# END TEMPLATE
# END CENTROID-CHANGES

4.4 QUERY and POLLEES responses

The response to a QUERY command is done in WHOIS++ format.

6.4. Query referral

When referrals are included in the body of a response to a query, 
each referral is listed in a separate SERVER-TO-ASK block as shown
below.

# SERVER-TO-ASK
 Version-number: // version number of index software, used to insure
                 // compatibility
 Body-of-Query: // the original query goes here
 Server-Handle: // WHOIS++ handle of the referred server
 Host-Name: // DNS name or IP address of the referred server
 Port-Number: // Port number to which to connect, if different from the
		// WHOIS++ port number
 
# END 

Required/Optional table

Version-number REQUIRED, value should be 1.0
Body-of-query OPTIONAL
Server-Handle REQUIRED
Host-Name REQUIRED
Port-Number OPTIONAL, must be used if different from port 63

Example:

# SERVER-TO-ASK
 Version-Number: 1.0
 Server-Handle: SUNETSE01
 Host-Name: sunic.sunet.se
 Port-Number: 63
# END 

7: Reply Codes
  In addition to the reply codes listed in [Deutsch 95] for the basic WHOIS++
client/server interaction, the following reply codes are used in version 1.0
of this protocol.

113 Requested method not available      Unable to provide a requested compression
		method. Contacts server will send requested data in different format.

227 Update request acknowledged         A DATA-CHANGED transmission has been accepted
                                        and logged for further action.

503 Required attribute missing          A REQUIRED attribute is missing in an
                                        interaction.

504 Desired server unreachable          The desired server is unreachable.

505 Desired server unavailable          The desired server fails to respond to 
                                        requests, but host is still reachable.


8. References

 [Deutsch 95]  Deutsch, et al. Architecture of the WHOIS++ service. March 1995. 
   Available by anonymous FTP as 
     <URL://nic.merit.edu/documents/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-wnils-
        architecture-03.txt>

[Faltstrom 95] Faltstrom, Patrik, Rickard Schoultz, and Chris Weider,
How to interact with a WHOIS++ mesh, Internet Draft, March 1995
  Available by anonymous FTP as
  < URL://nic.merit.edu/documents/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-wnils-mesh-02.txt>


9. Author's Addresses

Chris Weider
clw@bunyip.com
Bunyip Information Systems, Inc.
310 St. Catherine St. West
Montreal, PQ H2X 2A1
CANADA
(O) +1-514-875-8611
(F) +1-514-875-6134

Jim Fullton
fullton@cnidr.org
MCNC Center for Communications
Post Office Box 12889
3021 Cornwallis Road
Research Triangle Park
North Carolina 27709-2889
O: 919-248-1499
F: 919-248-1405

Simon Spero
ses@eit.com