Re: ssh-ed25519 implementations

"Mark D. Baushke" <mdb@juniper.net> Sat, 13 May 2017 14:53 UTC

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To: Ron Frederick <ronf@timeheart.net>
CC: Eric Rescorla <ekr@rtfm.com>, Brian Smith <brian@briansmith.org>, "denis bider" <denisbider.ietf@gmail.com>, Simon Tatham <anakin@pobox.com>, "ietf-ssh@NetBSD.org" <ietf-ssh@NetBSD.org>, "curdle@ietf.org" <curdle@ietf.org>
Subject: Re: ssh-ed25519 implementations
In-Reply-To: <336063E0-135F-4A75-94E4-71540669E21A@timeheart.net>
References: <76FD0F39-1F3D-4476-A3D8-D4C942C2EFD1@juniper.net> <CABcZeBNYUV=-azoZzZjnNtCEu3K0A-THHN2mt02V65oihbbrXw@mail.gmail.com> <36528.1494509552@eng-mail01.juniper.net> <6047C877-67DE-404F-8FBD-5B2C19D16EA6@timeheart.net> <1139.1494566512@eng-mail01.juniper.net> <336063E0-135F-4A75-94E4-71540669E21A@timeheart.net>
Comments: In-reply-to: Ron Frederick <ronf@timeheart.net> message dated "Fri, 12 May 2017 22:24:09 -0700."
From: "Mark D. Baushke" <mdb@juniper.net>
Date: Sat, 13 May 2017 07:51:02 -0700
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Hi Ron,

I have made some adjustments. Here is a unified diff of the relevant
changes to the .txt form of the draft. If the pseudo-code looks bad,
let me know if I should just remove it or not.

--- draft-ietf-curdle-ssh-curves-05.txt	2017-05-11 11:58:23.000000000 -0700
+++ draft-ietf-curdle-ssh-curves-06.txt	2017-05-13 07:46:54.000000000 -0700
@@ -140,47 +140,64 @@
    only to be applicable to the scope of the mechanism described in this
    document.
 
-   The shared secret, K, is defined in [RFC4253] as a multiple precision
-   integer (mpint).  Curve25519/448 outputs a binary string X, which is
-   the 32 or 56 byte point obtained by scalar multiplication of the
-   other side's public key and the local private key scalar.  The 32 or
-   56 bytes of X are converted into K by interpreting the bytes as an
-   unsigned fixed-length integer encoded in network byte order.  This
-   conversion follows the normal "mpint" process as described in section
-   5 of [RFC4251].
+   The shared secret, K, is defined in [RFC4253] and [RFC5656] as an
+   integer encoded as a multiple precision integer (mpint).
+   Curve25519/448 outputs a binary string X, which is the 32 or 56 byte
+   point obtained by scalar multiplication of the other side's public
+   key and the local private key scalar.  The 32 or 56 bytes of X are
+   converted into K by interpreting the octets as an unsigned fixed-
+   length integer encoded in network byte order.
+
+   The fixed-length integer is then minimized into the minimum number of
+   octets to represent a positve mpint.  This conversion follows the
+   normal "mpint" process as described in section 5 of [RFC4251] which
+   requires that unnecessary leading bytes with the value 0 MUST NOT be
+   included.  The length of the integer is then prepended with a 4 octet
+   big-endian integer which is the length in octets of the minimized K.
+
+   The mpint K is then fed along with other data to the key exchange
+   method's hash function to generate encryption keys.
 
    To clarify a corner-case in this conversion, when X is encoded as an
    mpint K, in order to calculate the exchange hash, it may vary as
    follows:
 
-   o  Trim all leading zero-bytes of X.  If X is all zero-bytes, then
-      the key exchange MUST fail.
-
-   o  If the high bit of X is set, the mpint format requires a zero byte
-      to be prepended.
-
-   o  The length of the encoded K may not be the same as the original
-      length of X due to trimming or prepending zero-bytes as needed for
-      "mpint" format.

-   Or, as pseudo code:
+   o  Trim all leading zero-bytes of X, as required in section 5 of
+      [RFC4251].  If X is all zero-bytes, then the key exchange MUST
+      fail as required in section 6 of [RFC7748].
+
+   o  Given X is a positive, if the MSB of X is set, then the "mpint"
+      format requires a zero-byte to be prepended.
+
+   o  The length of the "mpint" form of K may not be the same as the
+      original length of X due to trimming or prepending zero-byte
+      values as needed for "mpint" format. prepend K with the big-endian
+      number of octets for the length of K.
+
+   Or, as pseudo code (without dealing with side-channel issues):
 
                  k := x;
-                 while (k.length() > 0 && k[0] == 0) k = k[1:];
+                 while (k.length() > 0 && k[0] == 0) k := k[1:];
                  assert(k.length() > 0);
-                 if 0 != (k[0] & 0x80) k = '\0' .. k;
+                 if 0 != (k[0] & 0x80) k := '\0' .. k;
+                 l[0] := k.lengh() >> 24;
+                 l[1] := (k.lengh() >> 16) & 0xff;
+                 l[2] := (k.lengh() >> 8) & 0xff;
+                 l[3] := k.lengh() & 0xff;
+                 k := l .. k;
 
                                  Figure 1
 
    When performing the X25519 or X448 operations, the integer values
-   there will be encoded into byte strings by doing a fix-length
+   there will be encoded into byte strings by doing a fixed-length
    unsigned litle-endian conversion, per [RFC7748].  It is only later
    when these byte strings are then passed to the ECDH code in SSH that
    the bytes are re-interpreted as a fixed-length unsigned big-endian