## table of contents

complexSYcomputational(3) | LAPACK | complexSYcomputational(3) |

# NAME¶

complexSYcomputational - complex

# SYNOPSIS¶

## Functions¶

subroutine **chesv_aa_2stage** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA, TB, LTB,
IPIV, IPIV2, B, LDB, WORK, LWORK, INFO)

** CHESV_AA_2STAGE computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X
= B for HE matrices** subroutine **chetrf_aa_2stage** (UPLO, N, A, LDA,
TB, LTB, IPIV, IPIV2, WORK, LWORK, INFO)

**CHETRF_AA_2STAGE** subroutine **chetrs_aa_2stage** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A,
LDA, TB, LTB, IPIV, IPIV2, B, LDB, INFO)

**CHETRS_AA_2STAGE** subroutine **cla_syamv** (UPLO, N, ALPHA, A, LDA,
X, INCX, BETA, Y, INCY)

**CLA_SYAMV** computes a matrix-vector product using a symmetric indefinite
matrix to calculate error bounds. real function **cla_syrcond_c** (UPLO,
N, A, LDA, AF, LDAF, IPIV, C, CAPPLY, INFO, WORK, RWORK)

**CLA_SYRCOND_C** computes the infinity norm condition number of
op(A)*inv(diag(c)) for symmetric indefinite matrices. real function
**cla_syrcond_x** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, AF, LDAF, IPIV, X, INFO, WORK, RWORK)

**CLA_SYRCOND_X** computes the infinity norm condition number of
op(A)*diag(x) for symmetric indefinite matrices. subroutine
**cla_syrfsx_extended** (PREC_TYPE, UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA, AF, LDAF,
IPIV, COLEQU, C, B, LDB, Y, LDY, BERR_OUT, N_NORMS, ERR_BNDS_NORM,
ERR_BNDS_COMP, RES, AYB, DY, Y_TAIL, RCOND, ITHRESH, RTHRESH, DZ_UB,
IGNORE_CWISE, INFO)

**CLA_SYRFSX_EXTENDED** improves the computed solution to a system of
linear equations for symmetric indefinite matrices by performing
extra-precise iterative refinement and provides error bounds and backward
error estimates for the solution. real function **cla_syrpvgrw** (UPLO,
N, INFO, A, LDA, AF, LDAF, IPIV, WORK)

**CLA_SYRPVGRW** computes the reciprocal pivot growth factor
norm(A)/norm(U) for a symmetric indefinite matrix. subroutine
**clahef_aa** (UPLO, J1, M, NB, A, LDA, IPIV, H, LDH, WORK)

**CLAHEF_AA** subroutine **clasyf** (UPLO, N, NB, KB, A, LDA, IPIV, W,
LDW, INFO)

**CLASYF** computes a partial factorization of a complex symmetric matrix
using the Bunch-Kaufman diagonal pivoting method. subroutine
**clasyf_aa** (UPLO, J1, M, NB, A, LDA, IPIV, H, LDH, WORK)

**CLASYF_AA** subroutine **clasyf_rk** (UPLO, N, NB, KB, A, LDA, E,
IPIV, W, LDW, INFO)

**CLASYF_RK** computes a partial factorization of a complex symmetric
indefinite matrix using bounded Bunch-Kaufman (rook) diagonal pivoting
method. subroutine **clasyf_rook** (UPLO, N, NB, KB, A, LDA, IPIV, W,
LDW, INFO)

**CLASYF_ROOK** computes a partial factorization of a complex symmetric
matrix using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman ('rook') diagonal pivoting method.
subroutine **csycon** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, IPIV, ANORM, RCOND, WORK, INFO)

**CSYCON** subroutine **csycon_3** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, E, IPIV, ANORM,
RCOND, WORK, INFO)

**CSYCON_3** subroutine **csycon_rook** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, IPIV, ANORM,
RCOND, WORK, INFO)

** CSYCON_ROOK ** subroutine **csyconv** (UPLO, WAY, N, A, LDA, IPIV, E,
INFO)

**CSYCONV** subroutine **csyconvf** (UPLO, WAY, N, A, LDA, E, IPIV,
INFO)

**CSYCONVF** subroutine **csyconvf_rook** (UPLO, WAY, N, A, LDA, E,
IPIV, INFO)

**CSYCONVF_ROOK** subroutine **csyequb** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, S, SCOND,
AMAX, WORK, INFO)

**CSYEQUB** subroutine **csyrfs** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA, AF, LDAF,
IPIV, B, LDB, X, LDX, FERR, BERR, WORK, RWORK, INFO)

**CSYRFS** subroutine **csyrfsx** (UPLO, EQUED, N, NRHS, A, LDA, AF,
LDAF, IPIV, S, B, LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, BERR, N_ERR_BNDS, ERR_BNDS_NORM,
ERR_BNDS_COMP, NPARAMS, PARAMS, WORK, RWORK, INFO)

**CSYRFSX** subroutine **csysv_aa_2stage** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA, TB,
LTB, IPIV, IPIV2, B, LDB, WORK, LWORK, INFO)

** CSYSV_AA_2STAGE computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X
= B for SY matrices** subroutine **csytf2** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, IPIV,
INFO)

**CSYTF2** computes the factorization of a real symmetric indefinite
matrix, using the diagonal pivoting method (unblocked algorithm). subroutine
**csytf2_rk** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, E, IPIV, INFO)

**CSYTF2_RK** computes the factorization of a complex symmetric indefinite
matrix using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman (rook) diagonal pivoting method
(BLAS2 unblocked algorithm). subroutine **csytf2_rook** (UPLO, N, A, LDA,
IPIV, INFO)

**CSYTF2_ROOK** computes the factorization of a complex symmetric
indefinite matrix using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman ('rook') diagonal pivoting
method (unblocked algorithm). subroutine **csytrf** (UPLO, N, A, LDA,
IPIV, WORK, LWORK, INFO)

**CSYTRF** subroutine **csytrf_aa** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, IPIV, WORK, LWORK,
INFO)

**CSYTRF_AA** subroutine **csytrf_aa_2stage** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, TB, LTB,
IPIV, IPIV2, WORK, LWORK, INFO)

**CSYTRF_AA_2STAGE** subroutine **csytrf_rk** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, E, IPIV,
WORK, LWORK, INFO)

**CSYTRF_RK** computes the factorization of a complex symmetric indefinite
matrix using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman (rook) diagonal pivoting method
(BLAS3 blocked algorithm). subroutine **csytrf_rook** (UPLO, N, A, LDA,
IPIV, WORK, LWORK, INFO)

**CSYTRF_ROOK** subroutine **csytri** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, IPIV, WORK,
INFO)

**CSYTRI** subroutine **csytri2** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, IPIV, WORK, LWORK,
INFO)

**CSYTRI2** subroutine **csytri2x** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, IPIV, WORK, NB,
INFO)

**CSYTRI2X** subroutine **csytri_3** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, E, IPIV, WORK,
LWORK, INFO)

**CSYTRI_3** subroutine **csytri_3x** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, E, IPIV, WORK,
NB, INFO)

**CSYTRI_3X** subroutine **csytri_rook** (UPLO, N, A, LDA, IPIV, WORK,
INFO)

**CSYTRI_ROOK** subroutine **csytrs** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA, IPIV, B,
LDB, INFO)

**CSYTRS** subroutine **csytrs2** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA, IPIV, B, LDB,
WORK, INFO)

**CSYTRS2** subroutine **csytrs_3** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA, E, IPIV, B,
LDB, INFO)

**CSYTRS_3** subroutine **csytrs_aa** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA, IPIV, B,
LDB, WORK, LWORK, INFO)

**CSYTRS_AA** subroutine **csytrs_aa_2stage** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA,
TB, LTB, IPIV, IPIV2, B, LDB, INFO)

**CSYTRS_AA_2STAGE** subroutine **csytrs_rook** (UPLO, N, NRHS, A, LDA,
IPIV, B, LDB, INFO)

**CSYTRS_ROOK** subroutine **ctgsyl** (TRANS, IJOB, M, N, A, LDA, B,
LDB, C, LDC, D, LDD, E, LDE, F, LDF, SCALE, DIF, WORK, LWORK, IWORK, INFO)

**CTGSYL** subroutine **ctrsyl** (TRANA, TRANB, ISGN, M, N, A, LDA, B,
LDB, C, LDC, SCALE, INFO)

**CTRSYL**

# Detailed Description¶

This is the group of complex computational functions for SY matrices

# Function Documentation¶

## subroutine chesv_aa_2stage (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) TB, integer LTB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV2, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

** CHESV_AA_2STAGE computes the solution to system of linear
equations A * X = B for HE matrices**

**Purpose:**

CHESV_AA_2STAGE computes the solution to a complex system of

linear equations

A * X = B,

where A is an N-by-N Hermitian matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS

matrices.

Aasen's 2-stage algorithm is used to factor A as

A = U**H * T * U, if UPLO = 'U', or

A = L * T * L**H, if UPLO = 'L',

where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower)

triangular matrices, and T is Hermitian and band. The matrix T is

then LU-factored with partial pivoting. The factored form of A

is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B.

This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the hermitian matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

N-by-N upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading N-by-N lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, L is stored below (or above) the subdiaonal blocks,

when UPLO is 'L' (or 'U').

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*TB*

TB is COMPLEX array, dimension (LTB)

On exit, details of the LU factorization of the band matrix.

*LTB*

LTB is INTEGER

The size of the array TB. LTB >= 4*N, internally

used to select NB such that LTB >= (3*NB+1)*N.

If LTB = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the

routine only calculates the optimal size of LTB,

returns this value as the first entry of TB, and

no error message related to LTB is issued by XERBLA.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On exit, it contains the details of the interchanges, i.e.,

the row and column k of A were interchanged with the

row and column IPIV(k).

*IPIV2*

IPIV2 is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On exit, it contains the details of the interchanges, i.e.,

the row and column k of T were interchanged with the

row and column IPIV(k).

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

On entry, the right hand side matrix B.

On exit, the solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX workspace of size LWORK

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The size of WORK. LWORK >= N, internally used to select NB

such that LWORK >= N*NB.

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the

routine only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array,

returns this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and

no error message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.

> 0: if INFO = i, band LU factorization failed on i-th column

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine chetrf_aa_2stage (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) TB, integer LTB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV2, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CHETRF_AA_2STAGE**

**Purpose:**

CHETRF_AA_2STAGE computes the factorization of a real hermitian matrix A

using the Aasen's algorithm. The form of the factorization is

A = U**T*T*U or A = L*T*L**T

where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower)

triangular matrices, and T is a hermitian band matrix with the

bandwidth of NB (NB is internally selected and stored in TB( 1 ), and T is

LU factorized with partial pivoting).

This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the hermitian matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

N-by-N upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading N-by-N lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, L is stored below (or above) the subdiaonal blocks,

when UPLO is 'L' (or 'U').

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*TB*

TB is COMPLEX array, dimension (LTB)

On exit, details of the LU factorization of the band matrix.

*LTB*

LTB is INTEGER

The size of the array TB. LTB >= 4*N, internally

used to select NB such that LTB >= (3*NB+1)*N.

If LTB = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the

routine only calculates the optimal size of LTB,

returns this value as the first entry of TB, and

no error message related to LTB is issued by XERBLA.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On exit, it contains the details of the interchanges, i.e.,

the row and column k of A were interchanged with the

row and column IPIV(k).

*IPIV2*

IPIV2 is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On exit, it contains the details of the interchanges, i.e.,

the row and column k of T were interchanged with the

row and column IPIV(k).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX workspace of size LWORK

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The size of WORK. LWORK >= N, internally used to select NB

such that LWORK >= N*NB.

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the

routine only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array,

returns this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and

no error message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.

> 0: if INFO = i, band LU factorization failed on i-th column

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine chetrs_aa_2stage (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) TB, integer LTB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV2, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)¶

**CHETRS_AA_2STAGE**

**Purpose:**

CHETRS_AA_2STAGE solves a system of linear equations A*X = B with a real

hermitian matrix A using the factorization A = U**T*T*U or

A = L*T*L**T computed by CHETRF_AA_2STAGE.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U**T*T*U;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*T*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

Details of factors computed by CHETRF_AA_2STAGE.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*TB*

TB is COMPLEX array, dimension (LTB)

Details of factors computed by CHETRF_AA_2STAGE.

*LTB*

LTB is INTEGER

The size of the array TB. LTB >= 4*N.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges as computed by

CHETRF_AA_2STAGE.

*IPIV2*

IPIV2 is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges as computed by

CHETRF_AA_2STAGE.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

On entry, the right hand side matrix B.

On exit, the solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine cla_syamv (integer UPLO, integer N, real ALPHA, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) X, integer INCX, real BETA, real, dimension( * ) Y, integer INCY)¶

**CLA_SYAMV** computes a matrix-vector product using a
symmetric indefinite matrix to calculate error bounds.

**Purpose:**

CLA_SYAMV performs the matrix-vector operation

y := alpha*abs(A)*abs(x) + beta*abs(y),

where alpha and beta are scalars, x and y are vectors and A is an

n by n symmetric matrix.

This function is primarily used in calculating error bounds.

To protect against underflow during evaluation, components in

the resulting vector are perturbed away from zero by (N+1)

times the underflow threshold. To prevent unnecessarily large

errors for block-structure embedded in general matrices,

"symbolically" zero components are not perturbed. A zero

entry is considered "symbolic" if all multiplications involved

in computing that entry have at least one zero multiplicand.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is INTEGER

On entry, UPLO specifies whether the upper or lower

triangular part of the array A is to be referenced as

follows:

UPLO = BLAS_UPPER Only the upper triangular part of A

is to be referenced.

UPLO = BLAS_LOWER Only the lower triangular part of A

is to be referenced.

Unchanged on exit.

*N*

N is INTEGER

On entry, N specifies the number of columns of the matrix A.

N must be at least zero.

Unchanged on exit.

*ALPHA*

ALPHA is REAL .

On entry, ALPHA specifies the scalar alpha.

Unchanged on exit.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension ( LDA, n ).

Before entry, the leading m by n part of the array A must

contain the matrix of coefficients.

Unchanged on exit.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

On entry, LDA specifies the first dimension of A as declared

in the calling (sub) program. LDA must be at least

max( 1, n ).

Unchanged on exit.

*X*

X is COMPLEX array, dimension

( 1 + ( n - 1 )*abs( INCX ) )

Before entry, the incremented array X must contain the

vector x.

Unchanged on exit.

*INCX*

INCX is INTEGER

On entry, INCX specifies the increment for the elements of

X. INCX must not be zero.

Unchanged on exit.

*BETA*

BETA is REAL .

On entry, BETA specifies the scalar beta. When BETA is

supplied as zero then Y need not be set on input.

Unchanged on exit.

*Y*

Y is REAL array, dimension

( 1 + ( n - 1 )*abs( INCY ) )

Before entry with BETA non-zero, the incremented array Y

must contain the vector y. On exit, Y is overwritten by the

updated vector y.

*INCY*

INCY is INTEGER

On entry, INCY specifies the increment for the elements of

Y. INCY must not be zero.

Unchanged on exit.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Further Details:**

Level 2 Blas routine.

-- Written on 22-October-1986.

Jack Dongarra, Argonne National Lab.

Jeremy Du Croz, Nag Central Office.

Sven Hammarling, Nag Central Office.

Richard Hanson, Sandia National Labs.

-- Modified for the absolute-value product, April 2006

Jason Riedy, UC Berkeley

## real function cla_syrcond_c (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( ldaf, * ) AF, integer LDAF, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, real, dimension( * ) C, logical CAPPLY, integer INFO, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, real, dimension( * ) RWORK)¶

**CLA_SYRCOND_C** computes the infinity norm condition number
of op(A)*inv(diag(c)) for symmetric indefinite matrices.

**Purpose:**

CLA_SYRCOND_C Computes the infinity norm condition number of

op(A) * inv(diag(C)) where C is a REAL vector.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the

matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the N-by-N matrix A

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*AF*

AF is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDAF,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

*LDAF*

LDAF is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array AF. LDAF >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*C*

C is REAL array, dimension (N)

The vector C in the formula op(A) * inv(diag(C)).

*CAPPLY*

CAPPLY is LOGICAL

If .TRUE. then access the vector C in the formula above.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: Successful exit.

i > 0: The ith argument is invalid.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N).

Workspace.

*RWORK*

RWORK is REAL array, dimension (N).

Workspace.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## real function cla_syrcond_x (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( ldaf, * ) AF, integer LDAF, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) X, integer INFO, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, real, dimension( * ) RWORK)¶

**CLA_SYRCOND_X** computes the infinity norm condition number
of op(A)*diag(x) for symmetric indefinite matrices.

**Purpose:**

CLA_SYRCOND_X Computes the infinity norm condition number of

op(A) * diag(X) where X is a COMPLEX vector.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the

matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*AF*

AF is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDAF,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

*LDAF*

LDAF is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array AF. LDAF >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*X*

X is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

The vector X in the formula op(A) * diag(X).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: Successful exit.

i > 0: The ith argument is invalid.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N).

Workspace.

*RWORK*

RWORK is REAL array, dimension (N).

Workspace.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine cla_syrfsx_extended (integer PREC_TYPE, character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( ldaf, * ) AF, integer LDAF, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, logical COLEQU, real, dimension( * ) C, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex, dimension( ldy, * ) Y, integer LDY, real, dimension( * ) BERR_OUT, integer N_NORMS, real, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_NORM, real, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_COMP, complex, dimension( * ) RES, real, dimension( * ) AYB, complex, dimension( * ) DY, complex, dimension( * ) Y_TAIL, real RCOND, integer ITHRESH, real RTHRESH, real DZ_UB, logical IGNORE_CWISE, integer INFO)¶

**CLA_SYRFSX_EXTENDED** improves the computed solution to a
system of linear equations for symmetric indefinite matrices by performing
extra-precise iterative refinement and provides error bounds and backward
error estimates for the solution.

**Purpose:**

CLA_SYRFSX_EXTENDED improves the computed solution to a system of

linear equations by performing extra-precise iterative refinement

and provides error bounds and backward error estimates for the solution.

This subroutine is called by CSYRFSX to perform iterative refinement.

In addition to normwise error bound, the code provides maximum

componentwise error bound if possible. See comments for ERR_BNDS_NORM

and ERR_BNDS_COMP for details of the error bounds. Note that this

subroutine is only resonsible for setting the second fields of

ERR_BNDS_NORM and ERR_BNDS_COMP.

**Parameters**

*PREC_TYPE*

PREC_TYPE is INTEGER

Specifies the intermediate precision to be used in refinement.

The value is defined by ILAPREC(P) where P is a CHARACTER and P

= 'S': Single

= 'D': Double

= 'I': Indigenous

= 'X' or 'E': Extra

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the

matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right-hand-sides, i.e., the number of columns of the

matrix B.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*AF*

AF is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDAF,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

*LDAF*

LDAF is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array AF. LDAF >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*COLEQU*

COLEQU is LOGICAL

If .TRUE. then column equilibration was done to A before calling

this routine. This is needed to compute the solution and error

bounds correctly.

*C*

C is REAL array, dimension (N)

The column scale factors for A. If COLEQU = .FALSE., C

is not accessed. If C is input, each element of C should be a power

of the radix to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates.

Scaling by powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless

the result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling

lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the

input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be

reliable.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

The right-hand-side matrix B.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*Y*

Y is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDY,NRHS)

On entry, the solution matrix X, as computed by CSYTRS.

On exit, the improved solution matrix Y.

*LDY*

LDY is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array Y. LDY >= max(1,N).

*BERR_OUT*

BERR_OUT is REAL array, dimension (NRHS)

On exit, BERR_OUT(j) contains the componentwise relative backward

error for right-hand-side j from the formula

max(i) ( abs(RES(i)) / ( abs(op(A_s))*abs(Y) + abs(B_s) )(i) )

where abs(Z) is the componentwise absolute value of the matrix

or vector Z. This is computed by CLA_LIN_BERR.

*N_NORMS*

N_NORMS is INTEGER

Determines which error bounds to return (see ERR_BNDS_NORM

and ERR_BNDS_COMP).

If N_NORMS >= 1 return normwise error bounds.

If N_NORMS >= 2 return componentwise error bounds.

*ERR_BNDS_NORM*

ERR_BNDS_NORM is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)

For each right-hand side, this array contains information about

various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the

normwise relative error, which is defined as follows:

Normwise relative error in the ith solution vector:

max_j (abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i)))

------------------------------

max_j abs(X(j,i))

The array is indexed by the type of error information as described

below. There currently are up to three pieces of information

returned.

The first index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(i,:) corresponds to the ith

right-hand side.

The second index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,err) contains the following

three fields:

err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the

reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').

err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,

almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error

so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only

be trusted if the previous boolean is true.

err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated normwise

reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error

estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition

numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some

appropriately scaled matrix Z.

Let Z = S*A, where S scales each row by a power of the

radix so all absolute row sums of Z are approximately 1.

This subroutine is only responsible for setting the second field

above.

See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra

cautions.

*ERR_BNDS_COMP*

ERR_BNDS_COMP is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)

For each right-hand side, this array contains information about

various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the

componentwise relative error, which is defined as follows:

Componentwise relative error in the ith solution vector:

abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i))

max_j ----------------------

abs(X(j,i))

The array is indexed by the right-hand side i (on which the

componentwise relative error depends), and the type of error

information as described below. There currently are up to three

pieces of information returned for each right-hand side. If

componentwise accuracy is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0), then

ERR_BNDS_COMP is not accessed. If N_ERR_BNDS < 3, then at most

the first (:,N_ERR_BNDS) entries are returned.

The first index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(i,:) corresponds to the ith

right-hand side.

The second index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,err) contains the following

three fields:

err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the

reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').

err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,

almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error

so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only

be trusted if the previous boolean is true.

err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated componentwise

reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error

estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition

numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some

appropriately scaled matrix Z.

Let Z = S*(A*diag(x)), where x is the solution for the

current right-hand side and S scales each row of

A*diag(x) by a power of the radix so all absolute row

sums of Z are approximately 1.

This subroutine is only responsible for setting the second field

above.

See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra

cautions.

*RES*

RES is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

Workspace to hold the intermediate residual.

*AYB*

AYB is REAL array, dimension (N)

Workspace.

*DY*

DY is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

Workspace to hold the intermediate solution.

*Y_TAIL*

Y_TAIL is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

Workspace to hold the trailing bits of the intermediate solution.

*RCOND*

RCOND is REAL

Reciprocal scaled condition number. This is an estimate of the

reciprocal Skeel condition number of the matrix A after

equilibration (if done). If this is less than the machine

precision (in particular, if it is zero), the matrix is singular

to working precision. Note that the error may still be small even

if this number is very small and the matrix appears ill-

conditioned.

*ITHRESH*

ITHRESH is INTEGER

The maximum number of residual computations allowed for

refinement. The default is 10. For 'aggressive' set to 100 to

permit convergence using approximate factorizations or

factorizations other than LU. If the factorization uses a

technique other than Gaussian elimination, the guarantees in

ERR_BNDS_NORM and ERR_BNDS_COMP may no longer be trustworthy.

*RTHRESH*

RTHRESH is REAL

Determines when to stop refinement if the error estimate stops

decreasing. Refinement will stop when the next solution no longer

satisfies norm(dx_{i+1}) < RTHRESH * norm(dx_i) where norm(Z) is

the infinity norm of Z. RTHRESH satisfies 0 < RTHRESH <= 1. The

default value is 0.5. For 'aggressive' set to 0.9 to permit

convergence on extremely ill-conditioned matrices. See LAWN 165

for more details.

*DZ_UB*

DZ_UB is REAL

Determines when to start considering componentwise convergence.

Componentwise convergence is only considered after each component

of the solution Y is stable, which we define as the relative

change in each component being less than DZ_UB. The default value

is 0.25, requiring the first bit to be stable. See LAWN 165 for

more details.

*IGNORE_CWISE*

IGNORE_CWISE is LOGICAL

If .TRUE. then ignore componentwise convergence. Default value

is .FALSE..

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: Successful exit.

< 0: if INFO = -i, the ith argument to CLA_SYRFSX_EXTENDED had an illegal

value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## real function cla_syrpvgrw (character*1 UPLO, integer N, integer INFO, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( ldaf, * ) AF, integer LDAF, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, real, dimension( * ) WORK)¶

**CLA_SYRPVGRW** computes the reciprocal pivot growth factor
norm(A)/norm(U) for a symmetric indefinite matrix.

**Purpose:**

CLA_SYRPVGRW computes the reciprocal pivot growth factor

norm(A)/norm(U). The "max absolute element" norm is used. If this is

much less than 1, the stability of the LU factorization of the

(equilibrated) matrix A could be poor. This also means that the

solution X, estimated condition numbers, and error bounds could be

unreliable.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the

matrix A. N >= 0.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

The value of INFO returned from CSYTRF, .i.e., the pivot in

column INFO is exactly 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the N-by-N matrix A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*AF*

AF is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDAF,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

*LDAF*

LDAF is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array AF. LDAF >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*WORK*

WORK is REAL array, dimension (2*N)

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine clahef_aa (character UPLO, integer J1, integer M, integer NB, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldh, * ) H, integer LDH, complex, dimension( * ) WORK)¶

**CLAHEF_AA**

**Purpose:**

CLAHEF_AA factorizes a panel of a complex hermitian matrix A using

the Aasen's algorithm. The panel consists of a set of NB rows of A

when UPLO is U, or a set of NB columns when UPLO is L.

In order to factorize the panel, the Aasen's algorithm requires the

last row, or column, of the previous panel. The first row, or column,

of A is set to be the first row, or column, of an identity matrix,

which is used to factorize the first panel.

The resulting J-th row of U, or J-th column of L, is stored in the

(J-1)-th row, or column, of A (without the unit diagonals), while

the diagonal and subdiagonal of A are overwritten by those of T.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*J1*

J1 is INTEGER

The location of the first row, or column, of the panel

within the submatrix of A, passed to this routine, e.g.,

when called by CHETRF_AA, for the first panel, J1 is 1,

while for the remaining panels, J1 is 2.

*M*

M is INTEGER

The dimension of the submatrix. M >= 0.

*NB*

NB is INTEGER

The dimension of the panel to be facotorized.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,M) for

the first panel, while dimension (LDA,M+1) for the

remaining panels.

On entry, A contains the last row, or column, of

the previous panel, and the trailing submatrix of A

to be factorized, except for the first panel, only

the panel is passed.

On exit, the leading panel is factorized.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the row and column interchanges,

the row and column k were interchanged with the row and

column IPIV(k).

*H*

H is COMPLEX workspace, dimension (LDH,NB).

*LDH*

LDH is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the workspace H. LDH >= max(1,M).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX workspace, dimension (M).

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine clasyf (character UPLO, integer N, integer NB, integer KB, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldw, * ) W, integer LDW, integer INFO)¶

**CLASYF** computes a partial factorization of a complex
symmetric matrix using the Bunch-Kaufman diagonal pivoting method.

**Purpose:**

CLASYF computes a partial factorization of a complex symmetric matrix

A using the Bunch-Kaufman diagonal pivoting method. The partial

factorization has the form:

A = ( I U12 ) ( A11 0 ) ( I 0 ) if UPLO = 'U', or:

( 0 U22 ) ( 0 D ) ( U12**T U22**T )

A = ( L11 0 ) ( D 0 ) ( L11**T L21**T ) if UPLO = 'L'

( L21 I ) ( 0 A22 ) ( 0 I )

where the order of D is at most NB. The actual order is returned in

the argument KB, and is either NB or NB-1, or N if N <= NB.

Note that U**T denotes the transpose of U.

CLASYF is an auxiliary routine called by CSYTRF. It uses blocked code

(calling Level 3 BLAS) to update the submatrix A11 (if UPLO = 'U') or

A22 (if UPLO = 'L').

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the upper or lower triangular part of the

symmetric matrix A is stored:

= 'U': Upper triangular

= 'L': Lower triangular

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NB*

NB is INTEGER

The maximum number of columns of the matrix A that should be

factored. NB should be at least 2 to allow for 2-by-2 pivot

blocks.

*KB*

KB is INTEGER

The number of columns of A that were actually factored.

KB is either NB-1 or NB, or N if N <= NB.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

n-by-n upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading n-by-n lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, A contains details of the partial factorization.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D.

If UPLO = 'U':

Only the last KB elements of IPIV are set.

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) = IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and columns

k-1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k-1:k,k-1:k)

is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

If UPLO = 'L':

Only the first KB elements of IPIV are set.

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) = IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and columns

k+1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k:k+1,k:k+1)

is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

*W*

W is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDW,NB)

*LDW*

LDW is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array W. LDW >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

> 0: if INFO = k, D(k,k) is exactly zero. The factorization

has been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is

exactly singular.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

November 2013, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

## subroutine clasyf_aa (character UPLO, integer J1, integer M, integer NB, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldh, * ) H, integer LDH, complex, dimension( * ) WORK)¶

**CLASYF_AA**

**Purpose:**

DLATRF_AA factorizes a panel of a complex symmetric matrix A using

the Aasen's algorithm. The panel consists of a set of NB rows of A

when UPLO is U, or a set of NB columns when UPLO is L.

In order to factorize the panel, the Aasen's algorithm requires the

last row, or column, of the previous panel. The first row, or column,

of A is set to be the first row, or column, of an identity matrix,

which is used to factorize the first panel.

The resulting J-th row of U, or J-th column of L, is stored in the

(J-1)-th row, or column, of A (without the unit diagonals), while

the diagonal and subdiagonal of A are overwritten by those of T.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*J1*

J1 is INTEGER

The location of the first row, or column, of the panel

within the submatrix of A, passed to this routine, e.g.,

when called by CSYTRF_AA, for the first panel, J1 is 1,

while for the remaining panels, J1 is 2.

*M*

M is INTEGER

The dimension of the submatrix. M >= 0.

*NB*

NB is INTEGER

The dimension of the panel to be facotorized.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,M) for

the first panel, while dimension (LDA,M+1) for the

remaining panels.

On entry, A contains the last row, or column, of

the previous panel, and the trailing submatrix of A

to be factorized, except for the first panel, only

the panel is passed.

On exit, the leading panel is factorized.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,M).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (M)

Details of the row and column interchanges,

the row and column k were interchanged with the row and

column IPIV(k).

*H*

H is COMPLEX workspace, dimension (LDH,NB).

*LDH*

LDH is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the workspace H. LDH >= max(1,M).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX workspace, dimension (M).

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine clasyf_rk (character UPLO, integer N, integer NB, integer KB, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldw, * ) W, integer LDW, integer INFO)¶

**CLASYF_RK** computes a partial factorization of a complex
symmetric indefinite matrix using bounded Bunch-Kaufman (rook) diagonal
pivoting method.

**Purpose:**

CLASYF_RK computes a partial factorization of a complex symmetric

matrix A using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman (rook) diagonal

pivoting method. The partial factorization has the form:

A = ( I U12 ) ( A11 0 ) ( I 0 ) if UPLO = 'U', or:

( 0 U22 ) ( 0 D ) ( U12**T U22**T )

A = ( L11 0 ) ( D 0 ) ( L11**T L21**T ) if UPLO = 'L',

( L21 I ) ( 0 A22 ) ( 0 I )

where the order of D is at most NB. The actual order is returned in

the argument KB, and is either NB or NB-1, or N if N <= NB.

CLASYF_RK is an auxiliary routine called by CSYTRF_RK. It uses

blocked code (calling Level 3 BLAS) to update the submatrix

A11 (if UPLO = 'U') or A22 (if UPLO = 'L').

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the upper or lower triangular part of the

symmetric matrix A is stored:

= 'U': Upper triangular

= 'L': Lower triangular

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NB*

NB is INTEGER

The maximum number of columns of the matrix A that should be

factored. NB should be at least 2 to allow for 2-by-2 pivot

blocks.

*KB*

KB is INTEGER

The number of columns of A that were actually factored.

KB is either NB-1 or NB, or N if N <= NB.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A.

If UPLO = 'U': the leading N-by-N upper triangular part

of A contains the upper triangular part of the matrix A,

and the strictly lower triangular part of A is not

referenced.

If UPLO = 'L': the leading N-by-N lower triangular part

of A contains the lower triangular part of the matrix A,

and the strictly upper triangular part of A is not

referenced.

On exit, contains:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

are stored on exit in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

On exit, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i), i=2:N, E(1) is set to 0;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i), i=1:N-1, E(N) is set to 0.

NOTE: For 1-by-1 diagonal block D(k), where

1 <= k <= N, the element E(k) is set to 0 in both

UPLO = 'U' or UPLO = 'L' cases.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

IPIV describes the permutation matrix P in the factorization

of matrix A as follows. The absolute value of IPIV(k)

represents the index of row and column that were

interchanged with the k-th row and column. The value of UPLO

describes the order in which the interchanges were applied.

Also, the sign of IPIV represents the block structure of

the symmetric block diagonal matrix D with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2

diagonal blocks which correspond to 1 or 2 interchanges

at each factorization step.

If UPLO = 'U',

( in factorization order, k decreases from N to 1 ):

a) A single positive entry IPIV(k) > 0 means:

D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged in the submatrix A(1:N,N-KB+1:N);

If IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

b) A pair of consecutive negative entries

IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k-1) < 0 means:

D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

(NOTE: negative entries in IPIV appear ONLY in pairs).

1) If -IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns

k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged

in the matrix A(1:N,N-KB+1:N).

If -IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

2) If -IPIV(k-1) != k-1, rows and columns

k-1 and -IPIV(k-1) were interchanged

in the submatrix A(1:N,N-KB+1:N).

If -IPIV(k-1) = k-1, no interchange occurred.

c) In both cases a) and b) is always ABS( IPIV(k) ) <= k.

d) NOTE: Any entry IPIV(k) is always NONZERO on output.

If UPLO = 'L',

( in factorization order, k increases from 1 to N ):

a) A single positive entry IPIV(k) > 0 means:

D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged in the submatrix A(1:N,1:KB).

If IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

b) A pair of consecutive negative entries

IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k+1) < 0 means:

D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

(NOTE: negative entries in IPIV appear ONLY in pairs).

1) If -IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns

k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged

in the submatrix A(1:N,1:KB).

If -IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

2) If -IPIV(k+1) != k+1, rows and columns

k-1 and -IPIV(k-1) were interchanged

in the submatrix A(1:N,1:KB).

If -IPIV(k+1) = k+1, no interchange occurred.

c) In both cases a) and b) is always ABS( IPIV(k) ) >= k.

d) NOTE: Any entry IPIV(k) is always NONZERO on output.

*W*

W is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDW,NB)

*LDW*

LDW is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array W. LDW >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: If INFO = -k, the k-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: If INFO = k, the matrix A is singular, because:

If UPLO = 'U': column k in the upper

triangular part of A contains all zeros.

If UPLO = 'L': column k in the lower

triangular part of A contains all zeros.

Therefore D(k,k) is exactly zero, and superdiagonal

elements of column k of U (or subdiagonal elements of

column k of L ) are all zeros. The factorization has

been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is

exactly singular, and division by zero will occur if

it is used to solve a system of equations.

NOTE: INFO only stores the first occurrence of

a singularity, any subsequent occurrence of singularity

is not stored in INFO even though the factorization

always completes.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

December 2016, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

## subroutine clasyf_rook (character UPLO, integer N, integer NB, integer KB, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldw, * ) W, integer LDW, integer INFO)¶

**CLASYF_ROOK** computes a partial factorization of a complex
symmetric matrix using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman ('rook') diagonal pivoting
method.

**Purpose:**

CLASYF_ROOK computes a partial factorization of a complex symmetric

matrix A using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman ("rook") diagonal

pivoting method. The partial factorization has the form:

A = ( I U12 ) ( A11 0 ) ( I 0 ) if UPLO = 'U', or:

( 0 U22 ) ( 0 D ) ( U12**T U22**T )

A = ( L11 0 ) ( D 0 ) ( L11**T L21**T ) if UPLO = 'L'

( L21 I ) ( 0 A22 ) ( 0 I )

where the order of D is at most NB. The actual order is returned in

the argument KB, and is either NB or NB-1, or N if N <= NB.

CLASYF_ROOK is an auxiliary routine called by CSYTRF_ROOK. It uses

blocked code (calling Level 3 BLAS) to update the submatrix

A11 (if UPLO = 'U') or A22 (if UPLO = 'L').

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the upper or lower triangular part of the

symmetric matrix A is stored:

= 'U': Upper triangular

= 'L': Lower triangular

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NB*

NB is INTEGER

The maximum number of columns of the matrix A that should be

factored. NB should be at least 2 to allow for 2-by-2 pivot

blocks.

*KB*

KB is INTEGER

The number of columns of A that were actually factored.

KB is either NB-1 or NB, or N if N <= NB.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

n-by-n upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading n-by-n lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, A contains details of the partial factorization.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D.

If UPLO = 'U':

Only the last KB elements of IPIV are set.

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and

columns k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and rows and

columns k-1 and -IPIV(k-1) were inerchaged,

D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

If UPLO = 'L':

Only the first KB elements of IPIV are set.

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k)

were interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and

columns k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and rows and

columns k+1 and -IPIV(k+1) were inerchaged,

D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

*W*

W is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDW,NB)

*LDW*

LDW is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array W. LDW >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

> 0: if INFO = k, D(k,k) is exactly zero. The factorization

has been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is

exactly singular.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

November 2013, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

## subroutine csycon (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, real ANORM, real RCOND, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYCON**

**Purpose:**

CSYCON estimates the reciprocal of the condition number (in the

1-norm) of a complex symmetric matrix A using the factorization

A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T computed by CSYTRF.

An estimate is obtained for norm(inv(A)), and the reciprocal of the

condition number is computed as RCOND = 1 / (ANORM * norm(inv(A))).

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*ANORM*

ANORM is REAL

The 1-norm of the original matrix A.

*RCOND*

RCOND is REAL

The reciprocal of the condition number of the matrix A,

computed as RCOND = 1/(ANORM * AINVNM), where AINVNM is an

estimate of the 1-norm of inv(A) computed in this routine.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csycon_3 (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, real ANORM, real RCOND, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYCON_3**

**Purpose:**

CSYCON_3 estimates the reciprocal of the condition number (in the

1-norm) of a complex symmetric matrix A using the factorization

computed by CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK:

A = P*U*D*(U**T)*(P**T) or A = P*L*D*(L**T)*(P**T),

where U (or L) is unit upper (or lower) triangular matrix,

U**T (or L**T) is the transpose of U (or L), P is a permutation

matrix, P**T is the transpose of P, and D is symmetric and block

diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

An estimate is obtained for norm(inv(A)), and the reciprocal of the

condition number is computed as RCOND = 1 / (ANORM * norm(inv(A))).

This routine uses BLAS3 solver CSYTRS_3.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are

stored as an upper or lower triangular matrix:

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = P*U*D*(U**T)*(P**T);

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = P*L*D*(L**T)*(P**T).

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

Diagonal of the block diagonal matrix D and factors U or L

as computed by CSYTRF_RK and CSYTRF_BK:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

should be provided on entry in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

On entry, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i),i=2:N, E(1) not referenced;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i),i=1:N-1, E(N) not referenced.

NOTE: For 1-by-1 diagonal block D(k), where

1 <= k <= N, the element E(k) is not referenced in both

UPLO = 'U' or UPLO = 'L' cases.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK.

*ANORM*

ANORM is REAL

The 1-norm of the original matrix A.

*RCOND*

RCOND is REAL

The reciprocal of the condition number of the matrix A,

computed as RCOND = 1/(ANORM * AINVNM), where AINVNM is an

estimate of the 1-norm of inv(A) computed in this routine.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

June 2017, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

## subroutine csycon_rook (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, real ANORM, real RCOND, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer INFO)¶

** CSYCON_ROOK **

**Purpose:**

CSYCON_ROOK estimates the reciprocal of the condition number (in the

1-norm) of a complex symmetric matrix A using the factorization

A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T computed by CSYTRF_ROOK.

An estimate is obtained for norm(inv(A)), and the reciprocal of the

condition number is computed as RCOND = 1 / (ANORM * norm(inv(A))).

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF_ROOK.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF_ROOK.

*ANORM*

ANORM is REAL

The 1-norm of the original matrix A.

*RCOND*

RCOND is REAL

The reciprocal of the condition number of the matrix A,

computed as RCOND = 1/(ANORM * AINVNM), where AINVNM is an

estimate of the 1-norm of inv(A) computed in this routine.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

April 2012, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

## subroutine csyconv (character UPLO, character WAY, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer INFO)¶

**CSYCONV**

**Purpose:**

CSYCONV convert A given by TRF into L and D and vice-versa.

Get Non-diag elements of D (returned in workspace) and

apply or reverse permutation done in TRF.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*WAY*

WAY is CHARACTER*1

= 'C': Convert

= 'R': Revert

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

E stores the supdiagonal/subdiagonal of the symmetric 1-by-1

or 2-by-2 block diagonal matrix D in LDLT.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csyconvf (character UPLO, character WAY, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer INFO)¶

**CSYCONVF**

**Purpose:**

If parameter WAY = 'C':

CSYCONVF converts the factorization output format used in

CSYTRF provided on entry in parameter A into the factorization

output format used in CSYTRF_RK (or CSYTRF_BK) that is stored

on exit in parameters A and E. It also converts in place details of

the intechanges stored in IPIV from the format used in CSYTRF into

the format used in CSYTRF_RK (or CSYTRF_BK).

If parameter WAY = 'R':

CSYCONVF performs the conversion in reverse direction, i.e.

converts the factorization output format used in CSYTRF_RK

(or CSYTRF_BK) provided on entry in parameters A and E into

the factorization output format used in CSYTRF that is stored

on exit in parameter A. It also converts in place details of

the intechanges stored in IPIV from the format used in CSYTRF_RK

(or CSYTRF_BK) into the format used in CSYTRF.

CSYCONVF can also convert in Hermitian matrix case, i.e. between

formats used in CHETRF and CHETRF_RK (or CHETRF_BK).

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are

stored as an upper or lower triangular matrix A.

= 'U': Upper triangular

= 'L': Lower triangular

*WAY*

WAY is CHARACTER*1

= 'C': Convert

= 'R': Revert

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

1) If WAY ='C':

On entry, contains factorization details in format used in

CSYTRF:

a) all elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A and on superdiagonal

(or subdiagonal) of A, and

b) If UPLO = 'U': multipliers used to obtain factor U

in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': multipliers used to obtain factor L

in the superdiagonal part of A.

On exit, contains factorization details in format used in

CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

are stored on exit in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

2) If WAY = 'R':

On entry, contains factorization details in format used in

CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

are stored on exit in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

On exit, contains factorization details in format used in

CSYTRF:

a) all elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A and on superdiagonal

(or subdiagonal) of A, and

b) If UPLO = 'U': multipliers used to obtain factor U

in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': multipliers used to obtain factor L

in the superdiagonal part of A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

1) If WAY ='C':

On entry, just a workspace.

On exit, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i), i=2:N, E(1) is set to 0;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i), i=1:N-1, E(N) is set to 0.

2) If WAY = 'R':

On entry, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i),i=2:N, E(1) not referenced;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i),i=1:N-1, E(N) not referenced.

On exit, is not changed

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

1) If WAY ='C':

On entry, details of the interchanges and the block

structure of D in the format used in CSYTRF.

On exit, details of the interchanges and the block

structure of D in the format used in CSYTRF_RK

( or CSYTRF_BK).

1) If WAY ='R':

On entry, details of the interchanges and the block

structure of D in the format used in CSYTRF_RK

( or CSYTRF_BK).

On exit, details of the interchanges and the block

structure of D in the format used in CSYTRF.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

November 2017, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

## subroutine csyconvf_rook (character UPLO, character WAY, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer INFO)¶

**CSYCONVF_ROOK**

**Purpose:**

If parameter WAY = 'C':

CSYCONVF_ROOK converts the factorization output format used in

CSYTRF_ROOK provided on entry in parameter A into the factorization

output format used in CSYTRF_RK (or CSYTRF_BK) that is stored

on exit in parameters A and E. IPIV format for CSYTRF_ROOK and

CSYTRF_RK (or CSYTRF_BK) is the same and is not converted.

If parameter WAY = 'R':

CSYCONVF_ROOK performs the conversion in reverse direction, i.e.

converts the factorization output format used in CSYTRF_RK

(or CSYTRF_BK) provided on entry in parameters A and E into

the factorization output format used in CSYTRF_ROOK that is stored

on exit in parameter A. IPIV format for CSYTRF_ROOK and

CSYTRF_RK (or CSYTRF_BK) is the same and is not converted.

CSYCONVF_ROOK can also convert in Hermitian matrix case, i.e. between

formats used in CHETRF_ROOK and CHETRF_RK (or CHETRF_BK).

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are

stored as an upper or lower triangular matrix A.

= 'U': Upper triangular

= 'L': Lower triangular

*WAY*

WAY is CHARACTER*1

= 'C': Convert

= 'R': Revert

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

1) If WAY ='C':

On entry, contains factorization details in format used in

CSYTRF_ROOK:

a) all elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A and on superdiagonal

(or subdiagonal) of A, and

b) If UPLO = 'U': multipliers used to obtain factor U

in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': multipliers used to obtain factor L

in the superdiagonal part of A.

On exit, contains factorization details in format used in

CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

are stored on exit in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

2) If WAY = 'R':

On entry, contains factorization details in format used in

CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

are stored on exit in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

On exit, contains factorization details in format used in

CSYTRF_ROOK:

a) all elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A and on superdiagonal

(or subdiagonal) of A, and

b) If UPLO = 'U': multipliers used to obtain factor U

in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': multipliers used to obtain factor L

in the superdiagonal part of A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

1) If WAY ='C':

On entry, just a workspace.

On exit, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i), i=2:N, E(1) is set to 0;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i), i=1:N-1, E(N) is set to 0.

2) If WAY = 'R':

On entry, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i),i=2:N, E(1) not referenced;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i),i=1:N-1, E(N) not referenced.

On exit, is not changed

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On entry, details of the interchanges and the block

structure of D as determined:

1) by CSYTRF_ROOK, if WAY ='C';

2) by CSYTRF_RK (or CSYTRF_BK), if WAY ='R'.

The IPIV format is the same for all these routines.

On exit, is not changed.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

November 2017, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

## subroutine csyequb (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, real, dimension( * ) S, real SCOND, real AMAX, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYEQUB**

**Purpose:**

CSYEQUB computes row and column scalings intended to equilibrate a

symmetric matrix A (with respect to the Euclidean norm) and reduce

its condition number. The scale factors S are computed by the BIN

algorithm (see references) so that the scaled matrix B with elements

B(i,j) = S(i)*A(i,j)*S(j) has a condition number within a factor N of

the smallest possible condition number over all possible diagonal

scalings.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

The N-by-N symmetric matrix whose scaling factors are to be

computed.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*S*

S is REAL array, dimension (N)

If INFO = 0, S contains the scale factors for A.

*SCOND*

SCOND is REAL

If INFO = 0, S contains the ratio of the smallest S(i) to

the largest S(i). If SCOND >= 0.1 and AMAX is neither too

large nor too small, it is not worth scaling by S.

*AMAX*

AMAX is REAL

Largest absolute value of any matrix element. If AMAX is

very close to overflow or very close to underflow, the

matrix should be scaled.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = i, the i-th diagonal element is nonpositive.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**References:**

Numerical Algorithms, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 97-120, January 2004.

DOI 10.1023/B:NUMA.0000016606.32820.69

Tech report version: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.3.1679

## subroutine csyrfs (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( ldaf, * ) AF, integer LDAF, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex, dimension( ldx, * ) X, integer LDX, real, dimension( * ) FERR, real, dimension( * ) BERR, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, real, dimension( * ) RWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYRFS**

**Purpose:**

CSYRFS improves the computed solution to a system of linear

equations when the coefficient matrix is symmetric indefinite, and

provides error bounds and backward error estimates for the solution.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

The symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading N-by-N

upper triangular part of A contains the upper triangular part

of the matrix A, and the strictly lower triangular part of A

is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the leading N-by-N lower

triangular part of A contains the lower triangular part of

the matrix A, and the strictly upper triangular part of A is

not referenced.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*AF*

AF is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDAF,N)

The factored form of the matrix A. AF contains the block

diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the

factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**T or

A = L*D*L**T as computed by CSYTRF.

*LDAF*

LDAF is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array AF. LDAF >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

The right hand side matrix B.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*X*

X is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)

On entry, the solution matrix X, as computed by CSYTRS.

On exit, the improved solution matrix X.

*LDX*

LDX is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

*FERR*

FERR is REAL array, dimension (NRHS)

The estimated forward error bound for each solution vector

X(j) (the j-th column of the solution matrix X).

If XTRUE is the true solution corresponding to X(j), FERR(j)

is an estimated upper bound for the magnitude of the largest

element in (X(j) - XTRUE) divided by the magnitude of the

largest element in X(j). The estimate is as reliable as

the estimate for RCOND, and is almost always a slight

overestimate of the true error.

*BERR*

BERR is REAL array, dimension (NRHS)

The componentwise relative backward error of each solution

vector X(j) (i.e., the smallest relative change in

any element of A or B that makes X(j) an exact solution).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N)

*RWORK*

RWORK is REAL array, dimension (N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Internal Parameters:**

ITMAX is the maximum number of steps of iterative refinement.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csyrfsx (character UPLO, character EQUED, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( ldaf, * ) AF, integer LDAF, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, real, dimension( * ) S, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex, dimension( ldx, * ) X, integer LDX, real RCOND, real, dimension( * ) BERR, integer N_ERR_BNDS, real, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_NORM, real, dimension( nrhs, * ) ERR_BNDS_COMP, integer NPARAMS, real, dimension( * ) PARAMS, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, real, dimension( * ) RWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYRFSX**

**Purpose:**

CSYRFSX improves the computed solution to a system of linear

equations when the coefficient matrix is symmetric indefinite, and

provides error bounds and backward error estimates for the

solution. In addition to normwise error bound, the code provides

maximum componentwise error bound if possible. See comments for

ERR_BNDS_NORM and ERR_BNDS_COMP for details of the error bounds.

The original system of linear equations may have been equilibrated

before calling this routine, as described by arguments EQUED and S

below. In this case, the solution and error bounds returned are

for the original unequilibrated system.

Some optional parameters are bundled in the PARAMS array. These

settings determine how refinement is performed, but often the

defaults are acceptable. If the defaults are acceptable, users

can pass NPARAMS = 0 which prevents the source code from accessing

the PARAMS argument.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*EQUED*

EQUED is CHARACTER*1

Specifies the form of equilibration that was done to A

before calling this routine. This is needed to compute

the solution and error bounds correctly.

= 'N': No equilibration

= 'Y': Both row and column equilibration, i.e., A has been

replaced by diag(S) * A * diag(S).

The right hand side B has been changed accordingly.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

The symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading N-by-N

upper triangular part of A contains the upper triangular

part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower triangular

part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the leading

N-by-N lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*AF*

AF is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDAF,N)

The factored form of the matrix A. AF contains the block

diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the

factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A =

L*D*L**T as computed by CSYTRF.

*LDAF*

LDAF is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array AF. LDAF >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*S*

S is REAL array, dimension (N)

The scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'Y', A is multiplied on

the left and right by diag(S). S is an input argument if FACT =

'F'; otherwise, S is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and EQUED

= 'Y', each element of S must be positive. If S is output, each

element of S is a power of the radix. If S is input, each element

of S should be a power of the radix to ensure a reliable solution

and error estimates. Scaling by powers of the radix does not cause

rounding errors unless the result underflows or overflows.

Rounding errors during scaling lead to refining with a matrix that

is not equivalent to the input matrix, producing error estimates

that may not be reliable.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

The right hand side matrix B.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*X*

X is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)

On entry, the solution matrix X, as computed by CGETRS.

On exit, the improved solution matrix X.

*LDX*

LDX is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).

*RCOND*

RCOND is REAL

Reciprocal scaled condition number. This is an estimate of the

reciprocal Skeel condition number of the matrix A after

equilibration (if done). If this is less than the machine

precision (in particular, if it is zero), the matrix is singular

to working precision. Note that the error may still be small even

if this number is very small and the matrix appears ill-

conditioned.

*BERR*

BERR is REAL array, dimension (NRHS)

Componentwise relative backward error. This is the

componentwise relative backward error of each solution vector X(j)

(i.e., the smallest relative change in any element of A or B that

makes X(j) an exact solution).

*N_ERR_BNDS*

N_ERR_BNDS is INTEGER

Number of error bounds to return for each right hand side

and each type (normwise or componentwise). See ERR_BNDS_NORM and

ERR_BNDS_COMP below.

*ERR_BNDS_NORM*

ERR_BNDS_NORM is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)

For each right-hand side, this array contains information about

various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the

normwise relative error, which is defined as follows:

Normwise relative error in the ith solution vector:

max_j (abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i)))

------------------------------

max_j abs(X(j,i))

The array is indexed by the type of error information as described

below. There currently are up to three pieces of information

returned.

The first index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(i,:) corresponds to the ith

right-hand side.

The second index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,err) contains the following

three fields:

err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the

reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').

err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,

almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error

so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only

be trusted if the previous boolean is true.

err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated normwise

reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error

estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition

numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some

appropriately scaled matrix Z.

Let Z = S*A, where S scales each row by a power of the

radix so all absolute row sums of Z are approximately 1.

See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra

cautions.

*ERR_BNDS_COMP*

ERR_BNDS_COMP is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)

For each right-hand side, this array contains information about

various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the

componentwise relative error, which is defined as follows:

Componentwise relative error in the ith solution vector:

abs(XTRUE(j,i) - X(j,i))

max_j ----------------------

abs(X(j,i))

The array is indexed by the right-hand side i (on which the

componentwise relative error depends), and the type of error

information as described below. There currently are up to three

pieces of information returned for each right-hand side. If

componentwise accuracy is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0), then

ERR_BNDS_COMP is not accessed. If N_ERR_BNDS < 3, then at most

the first (:,N_ERR_BNDS) entries are returned.

The first index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(i,:) corresponds to the ith

right-hand side.

The second index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,err) contains the following

three fields:

err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the

reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').

err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,

almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error

so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only

be trusted if the previous boolean is true.

err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated componentwise

reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold

sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error

estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition

numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{-1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some

appropriately scaled matrix Z.

Let Z = S*(A*diag(x)), where x is the solution for the

current right-hand side and S scales each row of

A*diag(x) by a power of the radix so all absolute row

sums of Z are approximately 1.

See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra

cautions.

*NPARAMS*

NPARAMS is INTEGER

Specifies the number of parameters set in PARAMS. If <= 0, the

PARAMS array is never referenced and default values are used.

*PARAMS*

PARAMS is REAL array, dimension NPARAMS

Specifies algorithm parameters. If an entry is < 0.0, then

that entry will be filled with default value used for that

parameter. Only positions up to NPARAMS are accessed; defaults

are used for higher-numbered parameters.

PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I = 1) : Whether to perform iterative

refinement or not.

Default: 1.0

= 0.0: No refinement is performed, and no error bounds are

computed.

= 1.0: Use the double-precision refinement algorithm,

possibly with doubled-single computations if the

compilation environment does not support DOUBLE

PRECISION.

(other values are reserved for future use)

PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITHRESH_I = 2) : Maximum number of residual

computations allowed for refinement.

Default: 10

Aggressive: Set to 100 to permit convergence using approximate

factorizations or factorizations other than LU. If

the factorization uses a technique other than

Gaussian elimination, the guarantees in

err_bnds_norm and err_bnds_comp may no longer be

trustworthy.

PARAMS(LA_LINRX_CWISE_I = 3) : Flag determining if the code

will attempt to find a solution with small componentwise

relative error in the double-precision algorithm. Positive

is true, 0.0 is false.

Default: 1.0 (attempt componentwise convergence)

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N)

*RWORK*

RWORK is REAL array, dimension (2*N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: Successful exit. The solution to every right-hand side is

guaranteed.

< 0: If INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0 and <= N: U(INFO,INFO) is exactly zero. The factorization

has been completed, but the factor U is exactly singular, so

the solution and error bounds could not be computed. RCOND = 0

is returned.

= N+J: The solution corresponding to the Jth right-hand side is

not guaranteed. The solutions corresponding to other right-

hand sides K with K > J may not be guaranteed as well, but

only the first such right-hand side is reported. If a small

componentwise error is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0) then

the Jth right-hand side is the first with a normwise error

bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest J such

that ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0). By default (PARAMS(3) = 1.0)

the Jth right-hand side is the first with either a normwise or

componentwise error bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest

J such that either ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0 or

ERR_BNDS_COMP(J,1) = 0.0). See the definition of

ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,1) and ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,1). To get information

about all of the right-hand sides check ERR_BNDS_NORM or

ERR_BNDS_COMP.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csysv_aa_2stage (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) TB, integer LTB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV2, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

** CSYSV_AA_2STAGE computes the solution to system of linear
equations A * X = B for SY matrices**

**Purpose:**

CSYSV_AA_2STAGE computes the solution to a complex system of

linear equations

A * X = B,

where A is an N-by-N symmetric matrix and X and B are N-by-NRHS

matrices.

Aasen's 2-stage algorithm is used to factor A as

A = U**T * T * U, if UPLO = 'U', or

A = L * T * L**T, if UPLO = 'L',

where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower)

triangular matrices, and T is symmetric and band. The matrix T is

then LU-factored with partial pivoting. The factored form of A

is then used to solve the system of equations A * X = B.

This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

N-by-N upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading N-by-N lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, L is stored below (or above) the subdiaonal blocks,

when UPLO is 'L' (or 'U').

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*TB*

TB is COMPLEX array, dimension (LTB)

On exit, details of the LU factorization of the band matrix.

*LTB*

LTB is INTEGER

The size of the array TB. LTB >= 4*N, internally

used to select NB such that LTB >= (3*NB+1)*N.

If LTB = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the

routine only calculates the optimal size of LTB,

returns this value as the first entry of TB, and

no error message related to LTB is issued by XERBLA.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On exit, it contains the details of the interchanges, i.e.,

the row and column k of A were interchanged with the

row and column IPIV(k).

*IPIV2*

IPIV2 is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On exit, it contains the details of the interchanges, i.e.,

the row and column k of T were interchanged with the

row and column IPIV(k).

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

On entry, the right hand side matrix B.

On exit, the solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX workspace of size LWORK

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The size of WORK. LWORK >= N, internally used to select NB

such that LWORK >= N*NB.

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the

routine only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array,

returns this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and

no error message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.

> 0: if INFO = i, band LU factorization failed on i-th column

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytf2 (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTF2** computes the factorization of a real symmetric
indefinite matrix, using the diagonal pivoting method (unblocked
algorithm).

**Purpose:**

CSYTF2 computes the factorization of a complex symmetric matrix A

using the Bunch-Kaufman diagonal pivoting method:

A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T

where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower)

triangular matrices, U**T is the transpose of U, and D is symmetric and

block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

This is the unblocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 2 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the upper or lower triangular part of the

symmetric matrix A is stored:

= 'U': Upper triangular

= 'L': Lower triangular

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

n-by-n upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading n-by-n lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used

to obtain the factor U or L (see below for further details).

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D.

If UPLO = 'U':

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) = IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and columns

k-1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k-1:k,k-1:k)

is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

If UPLO = 'L':

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) = IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and columns

k+1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k:k+1,k:k+1)

is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -k, the k-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = k, D(k,k) is exactly zero. The factorization

has been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is

exactly singular, and division by zero will occur if it

is used to solve a system of equations.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Further Details:**

If UPLO = 'U', then A = U*D*U**T, where

U = P(n)*U(n)* ... *P(k)U(k)* ...,

i.e., U is a product of terms P(k)*U(k), where k decreases from n to

1 in steps of 1 or 2, and D is a block diagonal matrix with 1-by-1

and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks D(k). P(k) is a permutation matrix as

defined by IPIV(k), and U(k) is a unit upper triangular matrix, such

that if the diagonal block D(k) is of order s (s = 1 or 2), then

( I v 0 ) k-s

U(k) = ( 0 I 0 ) s

( 0 0 I ) n-k

k-s s n-k

If s = 1, D(k) overwrites A(k,k), and v overwrites A(1:k-1,k).

If s = 2, the upper triangle of D(k) overwrites A(k-1,k-1), A(k-1,k),

and A(k,k), and v overwrites A(1:k-2,k-1:k).

If UPLO = 'L', then A = L*D*L**T, where

L = P(1)*L(1)* ... *P(k)*L(k)* ...,

i.e., L is a product of terms P(k)*L(k), where k increases from 1 to

n in steps of 1 or 2, and D is a block diagonal matrix with 1-by-1

and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks D(k). P(k) is a permutation matrix as

defined by IPIV(k), and L(k) is a unit lower triangular matrix, such

that if the diagonal block D(k) is of order s (s = 1 or 2), then

( I 0 0 ) k-1

L(k) = ( 0 I 0 ) s

( 0 v I ) n-k-s+1

k-1 s n-k-s+1

If s = 1, D(k) overwrites A(k,k), and v overwrites A(k+1:n,k).

If s = 2, the lower triangle of D(k) overwrites A(k,k), A(k+1,k),

and A(k+1,k+1), and v overwrites A(k+2:n,k:k+1).

**Contributors:**

09-29-06 - patch from

Bobby Cheng, MathWorks

Replace l.209 and l.377

IF( MAX( ABSAKK, COLMAX ).EQ.ZERO ) THEN

by

IF( (MAX( ABSAKK, COLMAX ).EQ.ZERO) .OR. SISNAN(ABSAKK) ) THEN

1-96 - Based on modifications by J. Lewis, Boeing Computer Services

Company

## subroutine csytf2_rk (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTF2_RK** computes the factorization of a complex symmetric
indefinite matrix using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman (rook) diagonal pivoting
method (BLAS2 unblocked algorithm).

**Purpose:**

CSYTF2_RK computes the factorization of a complex symmetric matrix A

using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman (rook) diagonal pivoting method:

A = P*U*D*(U**T)*(P**T) or A = P*L*D*(L**T)*(P**T),

where U (or L) is unit upper (or lower) triangular matrix,

U**T (or L**T) is the transpose of U (or L), P is a permutation

matrix, P**T is the transpose of P, and D is symmetric and block

diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

This is the unblocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 2 BLAS.

For more information see Further Details section.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the upper or lower triangular part of the

symmetric matrix A is stored:

= 'U': Upper triangular

= 'L': Lower triangular

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A.

If UPLO = 'U': the leading N-by-N upper triangular part

of A contains the upper triangular part of the matrix A,

and the strictly lower triangular part of A is not

referenced.

If UPLO = 'L': the leading N-by-N lower triangular part

of A contains the lower triangular part of the matrix A,

and the strictly upper triangular part of A is not

referenced.

On exit, contains:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

are stored on exit in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

On exit, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i), i=2:N, E(1) is set to 0;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i), i=1:N-1, E(N) is set to 0.

NOTE: For 1-by-1 diagonal block D(k), where

1 <= k <= N, the element E(k) is set to 0 in both

UPLO = 'U' or UPLO = 'L' cases.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

IPIV describes the permutation matrix P in the factorization

of matrix A as follows. The absolute value of IPIV(k)

represents the index of row and column that were

interchanged with the k-th row and column. The value of UPLO

describes the order in which the interchanges were applied.

Also, the sign of IPIV represents the block structure of

the symmetric block diagonal matrix D with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2

diagonal blocks which correspond to 1 or 2 interchanges

at each factorization step. For more info see Further

Details section.

If UPLO = 'U',

( in factorization order, k decreases from N to 1 ):

a) A single positive entry IPIV(k) > 0 means:

D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged in the matrix A(1:N,1:N);

If IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

b) A pair of consecutive negative entries

IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k-1) < 0 means:

D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

(NOTE: negative entries in IPIV appear ONLY in pairs).

1) If -IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns

k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged

in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If -IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

2) If -IPIV(k-1) != k-1, rows and columns

k-1 and -IPIV(k-1) were interchanged

in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If -IPIV(k-1) = k-1, no interchange occurred.

c) In both cases a) and b), always ABS( IPIV(k) ) <= k.

d) NOTE: Any entry IPIV(k) is always NONZERO on output.

If UPLO = 'L',

( in factorization order, k increases from 1 to N ):

a) A single positive entry IPIV(k) > 0 means:

D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

b) A pair of consecutive negative entries

IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k+1) < 0 means:

D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

(NOTE: negative entries in IPIV appear ONLY in pairs).

1) If -IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns

k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged

in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If -IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

2) If -IPIV(k+1) != k+1, rows and columns

k-1 and -IPIV(k-1) were interchanged

in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If -IPIV(k+1) = k+1, no interchange occurred.

c) In both cases a) and b), always ABS( IPIV(k) ) >= k.

d) NOTE: Any entry IPIV(k) is always NONZERO on output.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: If INFO = -k, the k-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: If INFO = k, the matrix A is singular, because:

If UPLO = 'U': column k in the upper

triangular part of A contains all zeros.

If UPLO = 'L': column k in the lower

triangular part of A contains all zeros.

Therefore D(k,k) is exactly zero, and superdiagonal

elements of column k of U (or subdiagonal elements of

column k of L ) are all zeros. The factorization has

been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is

exactly singular, and division by zero will occur if

it is used to solve a system of equations.

NOTE: INFO only stores the first occurrence of

a singularity, any subsequent occurrence of singularity

is not stored in INFO even though the factorization

always completes.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Further Details:**

TODO: put further details

**Contributors:**

December 2016, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

01-01-96 - Based on modifications by

J. Lewis, Boeing Computer Services Company

A. Petitet, Computer Science Dept.,

Univ. of Tenn., Knoxville abd , USA

## subroutine csytf2_rook (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTF2_ROOK** computes the factorization of a complex
symmetric indefinite matrix using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman ('rook')
diagonal pivoting method (unblocked algorithm).

**Purpose:**

CSYTF2_ROOK computes the factorization of a complex symmetric matrix A

using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman ("rook") diagonal pivoting method:

A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T

where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower)

triangular matrices, U**T is the transpose of U, and D is symmetric and

block diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

This is the unblocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 2 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the upper or lower triangular part of the

symmetric matrix A is stored:

= 'U': Upper triangular

= 'L': Lower triangular

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

n-by-n upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading n-by-n lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used

to obtain the factor U or L (see below for further details).

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D.

If UPLO = 'U':

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k)

were interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and

columns k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and rows and

columns k-1 and -IPIV(k-1) were inerchaged,

D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

If UPLO = 'L':

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k)

were interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and

columns k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and rows and

columns k+1 and -IPIV(k+1) were inerchaged,

D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -k, the k-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = k, D(k,k) is exactly zero. The factorization

has been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is

exactly singular, and division by zero will occur if it

is used to solve a system of equations.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Further Details:**

If UPLO = 'U', then A = U*D*U**T, where

U = P(n)*U(n)* ... *P(k)U(k)* ...,

i.e., U is a product of terms P(k)*U(k), where k decreases from n to

1 in steps of 1 or 2, and D is a block diagonal matrix with 1-by-1

and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks D(k). P(k) is a permutation matrix as

defined by IPIV(k), and U(k) is a unit upper triangular matrix, such

that if the diagonal block D(k) is of order s (s = 1 or 2), then

( I v 0 ) k-s

U(k) = ( 0 I 0 ) s

( 0 0 I ) n-k

k-s s n-k

If s = 1, D(k) overwrites A(k,k), and v overwrites A(1:k-1,k).

If s = 2, the upper triangle of D(k) overwrites A(k-1,k-1), A(k-1,k),

and A(k,k), and v overwrites A(1:k-2,k-1:k).

If UPLO = 'L', then A = L*D*L**T, where

L = P(1)*L(1)* ... *P(k)*L(k)* ...,

i.e., L is a product of terms P(k)*L(k), where k increases from 1 to

n in steps of 1 or 2, and D is a block diagonal matrix with 1-by-1

and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks D(k). P(k) is a permutation matrix as

defined by IPIV(k), and L(k) is a unit lower triangular matrix, such

that if the diagonal block D(k) is of order s (s = 1 or 2), then

( I 0 0 ) k-1

L(k) = ( 0 I 0 ) s

( 0 v I ) n-k-s+1

k-1 s n-k-s+1

If s = 1, D(k) overwrites A(k,k), and v overwrites A(k+1:n,k).

If s = 2, the lower triangle of D(k) overwrites A(k,k), A(k+1,k),

and A(k+1,k+1), and v overwrites A(k+2:n,k:k+1).

**Contributors:**

November 2013, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

01-01-96 - Based on modifications by

J. Lewis, Boeing Computer Services Company

A. Petitet, Computer Science Dept., Univ. of Tenn., Knoxville abd , USA

## subroutine csytrf (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRF**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRF computes the factorization of a complex symmetric matrix A

using the Bunch-Kaufman diagonal pivoting method. The form of the

factorization is

A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T

where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower)

triangular matrices, and D is symmetric and block diagonal with

1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

N-by-N upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading N-by-N lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used

to obtain the factor U or L (see below for further details).

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D.

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If UPLO = 'U' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and

columns k-1 and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k-1:k,k-1:k)

is a 2-by-2 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'L' and IPIV(k) =

IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and columns k+1 and -IPIV(k) were

interchanged and D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))

On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The length of WORK. LWORK >=1. For best performance

LWORK >= N*NB, where NB is the block size returned by ILAENV.

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine

only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns

this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error

message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization

has been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is

exactly singular, and division by zero will occur if it

is used to solve a system of equations.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Further Details:**

If UPLO = 'U', then A = U*D*U**T, where

U = P(n)*U(n)* ... *P(k)U(k)* ...,

i.e., U is a product of terms P(k)*U(k), where k decreases from n to

1 in steps of 1 or 2, and D is a block diagonal matrix with 1-by-1

and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks D(k). P(k) is a permutation matrix as

defined by IPIV(k), and U(k) is a unit upper triangular matrix, such

that if the diagonal block D(k) is of order s (s = 1 or 2), then

( I v 0 ) k-s

U(k) = ( 0 I 0 ) s

( 0 0 I ) n-k

k-s s n-k

If s = 1, D(k) overwrites A(k,k), and v overwrites A(1:k-1,k).

If s = 2, the upper triangle of D(k) overwrites A(k-1,k-1), A(k-1,k),

and A(k,k), and v overwrites A(1:k-2,k-1:k).

If UPLO = 'L', then A = L*D*L**T, where

L = P(1)*L(1)* ... *P(k)*L(k)* ...,

i.e., L is a product of terms P(k)*L(k), where k increases from 1 to

n in steps of 1 or 2, and D is a block diagonal matrix with 1-by-1

and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks D(k). P(k) is a permutation matrix as

defined by IPIV(k), and L(k) is a unit lower triangular matrix, such

that if the diagonal block D(k) is of order s (s = 1 or 2), then

( I 0 0 ) k-1

L(k) = ( 0 I 0 ) s

( 0 v I ) n-k-s+1

k-1 s n-k-s+1

If s = 1, D(k) overwrites A(k,k), and v overwrites A(k+1:n,k).

If s = 2, the lower triangle of D(k) overwrites A(k,k), A(k+1,k),

and A(k+1,k+1), and v overwrites A(k+2:n,k:k+1).

## subroutine csytrf_aa (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRF_AA**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRF_AA computes the factorization of a complex symmetric matrix A

using the Aasen's algorithm. The form of the factorization is

A = U**T*T*U or A = L*T*L**T

where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower)

triangular matrices, and T is a complex symmetric tridiagonal matrix.

This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

N-by-N upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading N-by-N lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, the tridiagonal matrix is stored in the diagonals

and the subdiagonals of A just below (or above) the diagonals,

and L is stored below (or above) the subdiaonals, when UPLO

is 'L' (or 'U').

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On exit, it contains the details of the interchanges, i.e.,

the row and column k of A were interchanged with the

row and column IPIV(k).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))

On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The length of WORK. LWORK >= MAX(1,2*N). For optimum performance

LWORK >= N*(1+NB), where NB is the optimal blocksize.

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine

only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns

this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error

message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytrf_aa_2stage (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) TB, integer LTB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV2, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRF_AA_2STAGE**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRF_AA_2STAGE computes the factorization of a complex symmetric matrix A

using the Aasen's algorithm. The form of the factorization is

A = U**T*T*U or A = L*T*L**T

where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower)

triangular matrices, and T is a complex symmetric band matrix with the

bandwidth of NB (NB is internally selected and stored in TB( 1 ), and T is

LU factorized with partial pivoting).

This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the hermitian matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

N-by-N upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading N-by-N lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, L is stored below (or above) the subdiaonal blocks,

when UPLO is 'L' (or 'U').

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*TB*

TB is COMPLEX array, dimension (LTB)

On exit, details of the LU factorization of the band matrix.

*LTB*

LTB is INTEGER

The size of the array TB. LTB >= 4*N, internally

used to select NB such that LTB >= (3*NB+1)*N.

If LTB = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the

routine only calculates the optimal size of LTB,

returns this value as the first entry of TB, and

no error message related to LTB is issued by XERBLA.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On exit, it contains the details of the interchanges, i.e.,

the row and column k of A were interchanged with the

row and column IPIV(k).

*IPIV2*

IPIV2 is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

On exit, it contains the details of the interchanges, i.e.,

the row and column k of T were interchanged with the

row and column IPIV(k).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX workspace of size LWORK

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The size of WORK. LWORK >= N, internally used to select NB

such that LWORK >= N*NB.

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the

routine only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array,

returns this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and

no error message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.

> 0: if INFO = i, band LU factorization failed on i-th column

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytrf_rk (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRF_RK** computes the factorization of a complex symmetric
indefinite matrix using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman (rook) diagonal pivoting
method (BLAS3 blocked algorithm).

**Purpose:**

CSYTRF_RK computes the factorization of a complex symmetric matrix A

using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman (rook) diagonal pivoting method:

A = P*U*D*(U**T)*(P**T) or A = P*L*D*(L**T)*(P**T),

where U (or L) is unit upper (or lower) triangular matrix,

U**T (or L**T) is the transpose of U (or L), P is a permutation

matrix, P**T is the transpose of P, and D is symmetric and block

diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

For more information see Further Details section.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the upper or lower triangular part of the

symmetric matrix A is stored:

= 'U': Upper triangular

= 'L': Lower triangular

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A.

If UPLO = 'U': the leading N-by-N upper triangular part

of A contains the upper triangular part of the matrix A,

and the strictly lower triangular part of A is not

referenced.

If UPLO = 'L': the leading N-by-N lower triangular part

of A contains the lower triangular part of the matrix A,

and the strictly upper triangular part of A is not

referenced.

On exit, contains:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

are stored on exit in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

On exit, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i), i=2:N, E(1) is set to 0;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i), i=1:N-1, E(N) is set to 0.

NOTE: For 1-by-1 diagonal block D(k), where

1 <= k <= N, the element E(k) is set to 0 in both

UPLO = 'U' or UPLO = 'L' cases.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

IPIV describes the permutation matrix P in the factorization

of matrix A as follows. The absolute value of IPIV(k)

represents the index of row and column that were

interchanged with the k-th row and column. The value of UPLO

describes the order in which the interchanges were applied.

Also, the sign of IPIV represents the block structure of

the symmetric block diagonal matrix D with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2

diagonal blocks which correspond to 1 or 2 interchanges

at each factorization step. For more info see Further

Details section.

If UPLO = 'U',

( in factorization order, k decreases from N to 1 ):

a) A single positive entry IPIV(k) > 0 means:

D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged in the matrix A(1:N,1:N);

If IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

b) A pair of consecutive negative entries

IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k-1) < 0 means:

D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

(NOTE: negative entries in IPIV appear ONLY in pairs).

1) If -IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns

k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged

in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If -IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

2) If -IPIV(k-1) != k-1, rows and columns

k-1 and -IPIV(k-1) were interchanged

in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If -IPIV(k-1) = k-1, no interchange occurred.

c) In both cases a) and b), always ABS( IPIV(k) ) <= k.

d) NOTE: Any entry IPIV(k) is always NONZERO on output.

If UPLO = 'L',

( in factorization order, k increases from 1 to N ):

a) A single positive entry IPIV(k) > 0 means:

D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were

interchanged in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

b) A pair of consecutive negative entries

IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k+1) < 0 means:

D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

(NOTE: negative entries in IPIV appear ONLY in pairs).

1) If -IPIV(k) != k, rows and columns

k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged

in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If -IPIV(k) = k, no interchange occurred.

2) If -IPIV(k+1) != k+1, rows and columns

k-1 and -IPIV(k-1) were interchanged

in the matrix A(1:N,1:N).

If -IPIV(k+1) = k+1, no interchange occurred.

c) In both cases a) and b), always ABS( IPIV(k) ) >= k.

d) NOTE: Any entry IPIV(k) is always NONZERO on output.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension ( MAX(1,LWORK) ).

On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The length of WORK. LWORK >=1. For best performance

LWORK >= N*NB, where NB is the block size returned

by ILAENV.

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed;

the routine only calculates the optimal size of the WORK

array, returns this value as the first entry of the WORK

array, and no error message related to LWORK is issued

by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: If INFO = -k, the k-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: If INFO = k, the matrix A is singular, because:

If UPLO = 'U': column k in the upper

triangular part of A contains all zeros.

If UPLO = 'L': column k in the lower

triangular part of A contains all zeros.

Therefore D(k,k) is exactly zero, and superdiagonal

elements of column k of U (or subdiagonal elements of

column k of L ) are all zeros. The factorization has

been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is

exactly singular, and division by zero will occur if

it is used to solve a system of equations.

NOTE: INFO only stores the first occurrence of

a singularity, any subsequent occurrence of singularity

is not stored in INFO even though the factorization

always completes.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Further Details:**

TODO: put correct description

**Contributors:**

December 2016, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

## subroutine csytrf_rook (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRF_ROOK**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRF_ROOK computes the factorization of a complex symmetric matrix A

using the bounded Bunch-Kaufman ("rook") diagonal pivoting method.

The form of the factorization is

A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T

where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower)

triangular matrices, and D is symmetric and block diagonal with

1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading

N-by-N upper triangular part of A contains the upper

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower

triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the

leading N-by-N lower triangular part of A contains the lower

triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper

triangular part of A is not referenced.

On exit, the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used

to obtain the factor U or L (see below for further details).

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D.

If UPLO = 'U':

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k)

were interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k-1) < 0, then rows and

columns k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and rows and

columns k-1 and -IPIV(k-1) were inerchaged,

D(k-1:k,k-1:k) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

If UPLO = 'L':

If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k)

were interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1-by-1 diagonal block.

If IPIV(k) < 0 and IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and

columns k and -IPIV(k) were interchanged and rows and

columns k+1 and -IPIV(k+1) were inerchaged,

D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2-by-2 diagonal block.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK)).

On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The length of WORK. LWORK >=1. For best performance

LWORK >= N*NB, where NB is the block size returned by ILAENV.

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine

only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns

this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error

message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) is exactly zero. The factorization

has been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is

exactly singular, and division by zero will occur if it

is used to solve a system of equations.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Further Details:**

If UPLO = 'U', then A = U*D*U**T, where

U = P(n)*U(n)* ... *P(k)U(k)* ...,

i.e., U is a product of terms P(k)*U(k), where k decreases from n to

1 in steps of 1 or 2, and D is a block diagonal matrix with 1-by-1

and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks D(k). P(k) is a permutation matrix as

defined by IPIV(k), and U(k) is a unit upper triangular matrix, such

that if the diagonal block D(k) is of order s (s = 1 or 2), then

( I v 0 ) k-s

U(k) = ( 0 I 0 ) s

( 0 0 I ) n-k

k-s s n-k

If s = 1, D(k) overwrites A(k,k), and v overwrites A(1:k-1,k).

If s = 2, the upper triangle of D(k) overwrites A(k-1,k-1), A(k-1,k),

and A(k,k), and v overwrites A(1:k-2,k-1:k).

If UPLO = 'L', then A = L*D*L**T, where

L = P(1)*L(1)* ... *P(k)*L(k)* ...,

i.e., L is a product of terms P(k)*L(k), where k increases from 1 to

n in steps of 1 or 2, and D is a block diagonal matrix with 1-by-1

and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks D(k). P(k) is a permutation matrix as

defined by IPIV(k), and L(k) is a unit lower triangular matrix, such

that if the diagonal block D(k) is of order s (s = 1 or 2), then

( I 0 0 ) k-1

L(k) = ( 0 I 0 ) s

( 0 v I ) n-k-s+1

k-1 s n-k-s+1

If s = 1, D(k) overwrites A(k,k), and v overwrites A(k+1:n,k).

If s = 2, the lower triangle of D(k) overwrites A(k,k), A(k+1,k),

and A(k+1,k+1), and v overwrites A(k+2:n,k:k+1).

**Contributors:**

June 2016, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

## subroutine csytri (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRI**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRI computes the inverse of a complex symmetric indefinite matrix

A using the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T computed by

CSYTRF.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers

used to obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

On exit, if INFO = 0, the (symmetric) inverse of the original

matrix. If UPLO = 'U', the upper triangular part of the

inverse is formed and the part of A below the diagonal is not

referenced; if UPLO = 'L' the lower triangular part of the

inverse is formed and the part of A above the diagonal is

not referenced.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) = 0; the matrix is singular and its

inverse could not be computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytri2 (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRI2**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRI2 computes the inverse of a COMPLEX symmetric indefinite matrix

A using the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T computed by

CSYTRF. CSYTRI2 sets the LEADING DIMENSION of the workspace

before calling CSYTRI2X that actually computes the inverse.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers

used to obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

On exit, if INFO = 0, the (symmetric) inverse of the original

matrix. If UPLO = 'U', the upper triangular part of the

inverse is formed and the part of A below the diagonal is not

referenced; if UPLO = 'L' the lower triangular part of the

inverse is formed and the part of A above the diagonal is

not referenced.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (N+NB+1)*(NB+3)

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The dimension of the array WORK.

WORK is size >= (N+NB+1)*(NB+3)

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine

calculates:

- the optimal size of the WORK array, returns

this value as the first entry of the WORK array,

- and no error message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) = 0; the matrix is singular and its

inverse could not be computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytri2x (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( n+nb+1,* ) WORK, integer NB, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRI2X**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRI2X computes the inverse of a real symmetric indefinite matrix

A using the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T computed by

CSYTRF.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the NNB diagonal matrix D and the multipliers

used to obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

On exit, if INFO = 0, the (symmetric) inverse of the original

matrix. If UPLO = 'U', the upper triangular part of the

inverse is formed and the part of A below the diagonal is not

referenced; if UPLO = 'L' the lower triangular part of the

inverse is formed and the part of A above the diagonal is

not referenced.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the NNB structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (N+NB+1,NB+3)

*NB*

NB is INTEGER

Block size

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) = 0; the matrix is singular and its

inverse could not be computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytri_3 (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRI_3**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRI_3 computes the inverse of a complex symmetric indefinite

matrix A using the factorization computed by CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK:

A = P*U*D*(U**T)*(P**T) or A = P*L*D*(L**T)*(P**T),

where U (or L) is unit upper (or lower) triangular matrix,

U**T (or L**T) is the transpose of U (or L), P is a permutation

matrix, P**T is the transpose of P, and D is symmetric and block

diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

CSYTRI_3 sets the leading dimension of the workspace before calling

CSYTRI_3X that actually computes the inverse. This is the blocked

version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are

stored as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, diagonal of the block diagonal matrix D and

factors U or L as computed by CSYTRF_RK and CSYTRF_BK:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

should be provided on entry in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

On exit, if INFO = 0, the symmetric inverse of the original

matrix.

If UPLO = 'U': the upper triangular part of the inverse

is formed and the part of A below the diagonal is not

referenced;

If UPLO = 'L': the lower triangular part of the inverse

is formed and the part of A above the diagonal is not

referenced.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

On entry, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i),i=2:N, E(1) not referenced;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i),i=1:N-1, E(N) not referenced.

NOTE: For 1-by-1 diagonal block D(k), where

1 <= k <= N, the element E(k) is not referenced in both

UPLO = 'U' or UPLO = 'L' cases.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (N+NB+1)*(NB+3).

On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The length of WORK. LWORK >= (N+NB+1)*(NB+3).

If LDWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed;

the routine only calculates the optimal size of the optimal

size of the WORK array, returns this value as the first

entry of the WORK array, and no error message related to

LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) = 0; the matrix is singular and its

inverse could not be computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

November 2017, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

## subroutine csytri_3x (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( n+nb+1, * ) WORK, integer NB, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRI_3X**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRI_3X computes the inverse of a complex symmetric indefinite

matrix A using the factorization computed by CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK:

A = P*U*D*(U**T)*(P**T) or A = P*L*D*(L**T)*(P**T),

where U (or L) is unit upper (or lower) triangular matrix,

U**T (or L**T) is the transpose of U (or L), P is a permutation

matrix, P**T is the transpose of P, and D is symmetric and block

diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

This is the blocked version of the algorithm, calling Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are

stored as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored;

= 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, diagonal of the block diagonal matrix D and

factors U or L as computed by CSYTRF_RK and CSYTRF_BK:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

should be provided on entry in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

On exit, if INFO = 0, the symmetric inverse of the original

matrix.

If UPLO = 'U': the upper triangular part of the inverse

is formed and the part of A below the diagonal is not

referenced;

If UPLO = 'L': the lower triangular part of the inverse

is formed and the part of A above the diagonal is not

referenced.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

On entry, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i), i=2:N, E(1) not referenced;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i), i=1:N-1, E(N) not referenced.

NOTE: For 1-by-1 diagonal block D(k), where

1 <= k <= N, the element E(k) is not referenced in both

UPLO = 'U' or UPLO = 'L' cases.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (N+NB+1,NB+3).

*NB*

NB is INTEGER

Block size.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) = 0; the matrix is singular and its

inverse could not be computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

June 2017, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

## subroutine csytri_rook (character UPLO, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRI_ROOK**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRI_ROOK computes the inverse of a complex symmetric

matrix A using the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T

computed by CSYTRF_ROOK.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

On entry, the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers

used to obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF_ROOK.

On exit, if INFO = 0, the (symmetric) inverse of the original

matrix. If UPLO = 'U', the upper triangular part of the

inverse is formed and the part of A below the diagonal is not

referenced; if UPLO = 'L' the lower triangular part of the

inverse is formed and the part of A above the diagonal is

not referenced.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF_ROOK.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

> 0: if INFO = i, D(i,i) = 0; the matrix is singular and its

inverse could not be computed.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

December 2016, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

## subroutine csytrs (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRS**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRS solves a system of linear equations A*X = B with a complex

symmetric matrix A using the factorization A = U*D*U**T or

A = L*D*L**T computed by CSYTRF.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

On entry, the right hand side matrix B.

On exit, the solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytrs2 (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRS2**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRS2 solves a system of linear equations A*X = B with a complex

symmetric matrix A using the factorization A = U*D*U**T or

A = L*D*L**T computed by CSYTRF and converted by CSYCONV.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF.

Note that A is input / output. This might be counter-intuitive,

and one may think that A is input only. A is input / output. This

is because, at the start of the subroutine, we permute A in a

"better" form and then we permute A back to its original form at

the end.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

On entry, the right hand side matrix B.

On exit, the solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytrs_3 (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) E, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRS_3**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRS_3 solves a system of linear equations A * X = B with a complex

symmetric matrix A using the factorization computed

by CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK:

A = P*U*D*(U**T)*(P**T) or A = P*L*D*(L**T)*(P**T),

where U (or L) is unit upper (or lower) triangular matrix,

U**T (or L**T) is the transpose of U (or L), P is a permutation

matrix, P**T is the transpose of P, and D is symmetric and block

diagonal with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 diagonal blocks.

This algorithm is using Level 3 BLAS.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are

stored as an upper or lower triangular matrix:

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = P*U*D*(U**T)*(P**T);

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = P*L*D*(L**T)*(P**T).

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

Diagonal of the block diagonal matrix D and factors U or L

as computed by CSYTRF_RK and CSYTRF_BK:

a) ONLY diagonal elements of the symmetric block diagonal

matrix D on the diagonal of A, i.e. D(k,k) = A(k,k);

(superdiagonal (or subdiagonal) elements of D

should be provided on entry in array E), and

b) If UPLO = 'U': factor U in the superdiagonal part of A.

If UPLO = 'L': factor L in the subdiagonal part of A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (N)

On entry, contains the superdiagonal (or subdiagonal)

elements of the symmetric block diagonal matrix D

with 1-by-1 or 2-by-2 diagonal blocks, where

If UPLO = 'U': E(i) = D(i-1,i),i=2:N, E(1) not referenced;

If UPLO = 'L': E(i) = D(i+1,i),i=1:N-1, E(N) not referenced.

NOTE: For 1-by-1 diagonal block D(k), where

1 <= k <= N, the element E(k) is not referenced in both

UPLO = 'U' or UPLO = 'L' cases.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF_RK or CSYTRF_BK.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

On entry, the right hand side matrix B.

On exit, the solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

June 2017, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

## subroutine csytrs_aa (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRS_AA**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRS_AA solves a system of linear equations A*X = B with a complex

symmetric matrix A using the factorization A = U**T*T*U or

A = L*T*L**T computed by CSYTRF_AA.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U**T*T*U;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*T*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

Details of factors computed by CSYTRF_AA.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges as computed by CSYTRF_AA.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

On entry, the right hand side matrix B.

On exit, the solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= max(1,3*N-2).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytrs_aa_2stage (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( * ) TB, integer LTB, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV2, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRS_AA_2STAGE**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRS_AA_2STAGE solves a system of linear equations A*X = B with a complex

symmetric matrix A using the factorization A = U**T*T*U or

A = L*T*L**T computed by CSYTRF_AA_2STAGE.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U**T*T*U;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*T*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

Details of factors computed by CSYTRF_AA_2STAGE.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*TB*

TB is COMPLEX array, dimension (LTB)

Details of factors computed by CSYTRF_AA_2STAGE.

*LTB*

LTB is INTEGER

The size of the array TB. LTB >= 4*N.

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges as computed by

CSYTRF_AA_2STAGE.

*IPIV2*

IPIV2 is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges as computed by

CSYTRF_AA_2STAGE.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

On entry, the right hand side matrix B.

On exit, the solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

## subroutine csytrs_rook (character UPLO, integer N, integer NRHS, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, integer, dimension( * ) IPIV, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, integer INFO)¶

**CSYTRS_ROOK**

**Purpose:**

CSYTRS_ROOK solves a system of linear equations A*X = B with

a complex symmetric matrix A using the factorization A = U*D*U**T or

A = L*D*L**T computed by CSYTRF_ROOK.

**Parameters**

*UPLO*

UPLO is CHARACTER*1

Specifies whether the details of the factorization are stored

as an upper or lower triangular matrix.

= 'U': Upper triangular, form is A = U*D*U**T;

= 'L': Lower triangular, form is A = L*D*L**T.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.

*NRHS*

NRHS is INTEGER

The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns

of the matrix B. NRHS >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N)

The block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to

obtain the factor U or L as computed by CSYTRF_ROOK.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N).

*IPIV*

IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)

Details of the interchanges and the block structure of D

as determined by CSYTRF_ROOK.

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)

On entry, the right hand side matrix B.

On exit, the solution matrix X.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

December 2016, Igor Kozachenko,

Computer Science Division,

University of California, Berkeley

September 2007, Sven Hammarling, Nicholas J. Higham, Craig Lucas,

School of Mathematics,

University of Manchester

## subroutine ctgsyl (character TRANS, integer IJOB, integer M, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex, dimension( ldc, * ) C, integer LDC, complex, dimension( ldd, * ) D, integer LDD, complex, dimension( lde, * ) E, integer LDE, complex, dimension( ldf, * ) F, integer LDF, real SCALE, real DIF, complex, dimension( * ) WORK, integer LWORK, integer, dimension( * ) IWORK, integer INFO)¶

**CTGSYL**

**Purpose:**

CTGSYL solves the generalized Sylvester equation:

A * R - L * B = scale * C (1)

D * R - L * E = scale * F

where R and L are unknown m-by-n matrices, (A, D), (B, E) and

(C, F) are given matrix pairs of size m-by-m, n-by-n and m-by-n,

respectively, with complex entries. A, B, D and E are upper

triangular (i.e., (A,D) and (B,E) in generalized Schur form).

The solution (R, L) overwrites (C, F). 0 <= SCALE <= 1

is an output scaling factor chosen to avoid overflow.

In matrix notation (1) is equivalent to solve Zx = scale*b, where Z

is defined as

Z = [ kron(In, A) -kron(B**H, Im) ] (2)

[ kron(In, D) -kron(E**H, Im) ],

Here Ix is the identity matrix of size x and X**H is the conjugate

transpose of X. Kron(X, Y) is the Kronecker product between the

matrices X and Y.

If TRANS = 'C', y in the conjugate transposed system Z**H *y = scale*b

is solved for, which is equivalent to solve for R and L in

A**H * R + D**H * L = scale * C (3)

R * B**H + L * E**H = scale * -F

This case (TRANS = 'C') is used to compute an one-norm-based estimate

of Dif[(A,D), (B,E)], the separation between the matrix pairs (A,D)

and (B,E), using CLACON.

If IJOB >= 1, CTGSYL computes a Frobenius norm-based estimate of

Dif[(A,D),(B,E)]. That is, the reciprocal of a lower bound on the

reciprocal of the smallest singular value of Z.

This is a level-3 BLAS algorithm.

**Parameters**

*TRANS*

TRANS is CHARACTER*1

= 'N': solve the generalized sylvester equation (1).

= 'C': solve the "conjugate transposed" system (3).

*IJOB*

IJOB is INTEGER

Specifies what kind of functionality to be performed.

=0: solve (1) only.

=1: The functionality of 0 and 3.

=2: The functionality of 0 and 4.

=3: Only an estimate of Dif[(A,D), (B,E)] is computed.

(look ahead strategy is used).

=4: Only an estimate of Dif[(A,D), (B,E)] is computed.

(CGECON on sub-systems is used).

Not referenced if TRANS = 'C'.

*M*

M is INTEGER

The order of the matrices A and D, and the row dimension of

the matrices C, F, R and L.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrices B and E, and the column dimension

of the matrices C, F, R and L.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA, M)

The upper triangular matrix A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1, M).

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB, N)

The upper triangular matrix B.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1, N).

*C*

C is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDC, N)

On entry, C contains the right-hand-side of the first matrix

equation in (1) or (3).

On exit, if IJOB = 0, 1 or 2, C has been overwritten by

the solution R. If IJOB = 3 or 4 and TRANS = 'N', C holds R,

the solution achieved during the computation of the

Dif-estimate.

*LDC*

LDC is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array C. LDC >= max(1, M).

*D*

D is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDD, M)

The upper triangular matrix D.

*LDD*

LDD is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array D. LDD >= max(1, M).

*E*

E is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDE, N)

The upper triangular matrix E.

*LDE*

LDE is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array E. LDE >= max(1, N).

*F*

F is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDF, N)

On entry, F contains the right-hand-side of the second matrix

equation in (1) or (3).

On exit, if IJOB = 0, 1 or 2, F has been overwritten by

the solution L. If IJOB = 3 or 4 and TRANS = 'N', F holds L,

the solution achieved during the computation of the

Dif-estimate.

*LDF*

LDF is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array F. LDF >= max(1, M).

*DIF*

DIF is REAL

On exit DIF is the reciprocal of a lower bound of the

reciprocal of the Dif-function, i.e. DIF is an upper bound of

Dif[(A,D), (B,E)] = sigma-min(Z), where Z as in (2).

IF IJOB = 0 or TRANS = 'C', DIF is not referenced.

*SCALE*

SCALE is REAL

On exit SCALE is the scaling factor in (1) or (3).

If 0 < SCALE < 1, C and F hold the solutions R and L, resp.,

to a slightly perturbed system but the input matrices A, B,

D and E have not been changed. If SCALE = 0, R and L will

hold the solutions to the homogeneous system with C = F = 0.

*WORK*

WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK))

On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK.

*LWORK*

LWORK is INTEGER

The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK > = 1.

If IJOB = 1 or 2 and TRANS = 'N', LWORK >= max(1,2*M*N).

If LWORK = -1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine

only calculates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns

this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error

message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA.

*IWORK*

IWORK is INTEGER array, dimension (M+N+2)

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

=0: successful exit

<0: If INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value.

>0: (A, D) and (B, E) have common or very close

eigenvalues.

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

**Contributors:**

**References:**

[2] B. Kagstrom, A Perturbation Analysis of the Generalized Sylvester Equation (AR - LB, DR - LE ) = (C, F), SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 15(4):1045-1060, 1994.

[3] B. Kagstrom and L. Westin, Generalized Schur Methods with Condition Estimators for Solving the Generalized Sylvester Equation, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 34, No. 7, July 1989, pp 745-751.

## subroutine ctrsyl (character TRANA, character TRANB, integer ISGN, integer M, integer N, complex, dimension( lda, * ) A, integer LDA, complex, dimension( ldb, * ) B, integer LDB, complex, dimension( ldc, * ) C, integer LDC, real SCALE, integer INFO)¶

**CTRSYL**

**Purpose:**

CTRSYL solves the complex Sylvester matrix equation:

op(A)*X + X*op(B) = scale*C or

op(A)*X - X*op(B) = scale*C,

where op(A) = A or A**H, and A and B are both upper triangular. A is

M-by-M and B is N-by-N; the right hand side C and the solution X are

M-by-N; and scale is an output scale factor, set <= 1 to avoid

overflow in X.

**Parameters**

*TRANA*

TRANA is CHARACTER*1

Specifies the option op(A):

= 'N': op(A) = A (No transpose)

= 'C': op(A) = A**H (Conjugate transpose)

*TRANB*

TRANB is CHARACTER*1

Specifies the option op(B):

= 'N': op(B) = B (No transpose)

= 'C': op(B) = B**H (Conjugate transpose)

*ISGN*

ISGN is INTEGER

Specifies the sign in the equation:

= +1: solve op(A)*X + X*op(B) = scale*C

= -1: solve op(A)*X - X*op(B) = scale*C

*M*

M is INTEGER

The order of the matrix A, and the number of rows in the

matrices X and C. M >= 0.

*N*

N is INTEGER

The order of the matrix B, and the number of columns in the

matrices X and C. N >= 0.

*A*

A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,M)

The upper triangular matrix A.

*LDA*

LDA is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,M).

*B*

B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,N)

The upper triangular matrix B.

*LDB*

LDB is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).

*C*

C is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDC,N)

On entry, the M-by-N right hand side matrix C.

On exit, C is overwritten by the solution matrix X.

*LDC*

LDC is INTEGER

The leading dimension of the array C. LDC >= max(1,M)

*SCALE*

SCALE is REAL

The scale factor, scale, set <= 1 to avoid overflow in X.

*INFO*

INFO is INTEGER

= 0: successful exit

< 0: if INFO = -i, the i-th argument had an illegal value

= 1: A and B have common or very close eigenvalues; perturbed

values were used to solve the equation (but the matrices

A and B are unchanged).

**Author**

Univ. of California Berkeley

Univ. of Colorado Denver

NAG Ltd.

# Author¶

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